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Topic: Rise and decline of societies and civilizations 

World History

 Standard 5.  Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands possible causes of the decline and collapse of Indus Valley civilization (e.g., possible causes for the disappearance of cities such as Mohenjo-Daro, the role environmental changes played in the fall of Indus cities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows possible causes for the disappearance of cities such as Mohenjo Daro
     2.Understands the role environmental changes played in the fall of Indus cities
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the origins of the Hittite people, their empire in Anatolia, and major cultural and political achievements of this society
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of the Hittite people
     2.Understands features of the Hittite empire in Anatolia
     3.Knows major cultural achievements of Hittite society
     4.Knows major political achievements of Hittite society
   Benchmark 6.Understands potential sources for the decline in trade, the overcrowding, and eventual collapse of Mohenjo-Daro and other Indus cities
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands potential sources for the decline in trade in Mohenjo Daro and other Indus cities
     2.Understands potential sources for the overcrowding of Mohenjo Daro and other Indus cities
     3.Understands potential sources for the eventual collapse of Mohenjo Daro and other Indus cities
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the decline of the Indus valley civilization in comparison to that of other peoples such as the Sumerians
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the decline of the Indus valley civilization
     2.Understands the decline of various civilizations, including that of the Sumerians
     3.Knows features of the decline of the Indus Valley civilization that are similar to the decline of other groups of peoples
     4.Knows features of the decline of the Indus Valley civilization that are different from the decline of other groups of peoples
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands major technological, military, and political events in the development of Kushite society (e.g., the importance of Nile Valley trade and the decline of the New Kingdom as factors in the rise of the Kushite state in the 1st millennium BCE, how iron was used in Kushite society and which uses were most important to the kingdom)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major technological events in the development of Kushite society
     2.Understands major military events in the development of Kushite society
     3.Understands major political events in the development of Kushite society
     4.Understands the importance of Nile Valley trade and the decline of the New Kingdom as factors in the rise of the Kushite state in the 1st millennium BCE
     5.Understands how iron was used in Kushite society and which uses were most important to the kingdom
 Standard 12.  Understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath in various regions from 300 to 700 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands possible reasons for the decline of the Roman and Han Empires (e.g., possible factors that motivated nomadic peoples to move into the Roman Empire and China, common patterns of decline and fall in the Roman and Han Empires, the chronological order of significant historical events for Rome from the late Empire through the reign of Justinian, how differences in architecture can illustrate unity and alienation between the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands possible reasons for the decline of the Roman Empire
     2.Understands possible reasons for the decline of the Han Empire
     3.Knows possible factors that motivated nomadic peoples to move into the Roman Empire and China
     4.Knows common patterns of decline and fall in the Roman and Han Empires
     5.Knows the chronological order of significant historical events for Rome from the late Empire through the reign of Justinian
     6.Understands how differences in architecture can illustrate unity and alienation between the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political events that may have contributed to the decline of the Roman and Han Empires (e.g., the consequences of nomadic military movements in China and the western part of the Roman Empire; the nomadic invasions of the Roman Empire as described in the accounts of Orosius, Ammianus Marcellinus, Priscus, and secondary sources; significant battles, internal divisions, political changes, and invasions between the 3rd and 7th centuries CE that led to the fall of the Roman and Han Empires; the relative strengths and weaknesses of the Roman, Byzantine, and Han Empires)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political events that may have contributed to the decline of the Roman Empire
     2.Understands political events that may have contributed to the decline of the Han Empire
     3.Understands the consequences of nomadic military movements in China and the western part of the Roman Empire
     4.Understands the nomadic invasions of the Roman Empire as described in the accounts of Orosius, Ammianus Marcellinus, Priscus, and secondary sources
     5.Knows significant battles, internal divisions, political changes, and invasions between the 3rd and 7th centuries CE that led to the fall of the Roman Empire
     6.Knows significant battles, internal divisions, political changes, and invasions between the 3rd and 7th centuries CE that led to the fall of the Han Empire
     7.Understands the relative strengths and weaknesses of the Roman, Byzantine, and Han Empires
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political and social elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire (e.g., the strengths and weaknesses of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires and the factors that enabled the Byzantine Empire to continue as Rome fell; how Constantine selectively supported aspects of Western rule with Eastern institutions to create a new, independent, Byzantine state in the 4th century CE; the links between military, social, and economic causes for the decline in the Han and Roman Empires; the impact of barbarian movements on the regions of Europe, China, and India by the end of the 7th century CE; the life of Germanic peoples and society including the status and role of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire
     2.Understands social elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire
     3.Understands the strengths and weaknesses of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires
     4.Knows the factors that enabled the Byzantine Empire to continue as Rome fell
     5.Understands how Constantine selectively supported aspects of Western rule with Eastern institutions to create a new, independent, Byzantine state in the 4th century CE
     6.Understands the links between military, social, and economic causes for the decline in the Han and Roman Empires
     7.Understands the impact of barbarian movements on the regions of Europe, China, and India by the end of the 7th century CE
     8.Understands the life of Germanic peoples and society including the status and role of women
   Benchmark 2.Understands the significant social, political, and cultural characteristics of Gupta society (e.g., the Gupta decline and the importance of Hun invasions in the empire's disintegration; the Gupta golden age under Chandragupta II; centers of learning in India in the 4th and 5th centuries CE, and the role of Buddhist monks in education and higher learning; types of evidence available for understanding Gupta India; the route of the Hun invasion of India, and the revival of the golden age of the Guptas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significant social characteristics of Gupta society
     2.Understands the significant political characteristics of Gupta society
     3.Understands the significant cultural characteristics of Gupta society
     4.Understands the Gupta decline and the importance of Hun invasions in the empire’s disintegration
     5.Knows features of the Gupta golden age under Chandragupta II
     6.Knows centers of learning in India in the 4th and 5th centuries CE
     7.Knows the role of Buddhist monks in education and higher learning
     8.Knows types of evidence available for understanding Gupta India
     9.Knows the route of the Hun invasion of India
     10.Understands the revival of the golden age of the Guptas
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the Muslims spread Islamic beliefs and established their empire (e.g., how Muslim forces overthrew the Byzantines in Syria and Egypt and the Sassanids in Persia and Iraq; Arab Muslim success in founding an empire stretching from Western Europe to India and China; the diverse religious, cultural, and geographic factors that influenced the ability of the Muslim government to rule; how Islam attracted new converts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Muslim forces overthrew the Byzantines in Syria and Egypt
     2.Understands how Muslim forces overthrew the Sassanids in Persia and Iraq
     3.Understands Arab Muslim success in founding an empire stretching from Western Europe to India and China
     4.Understands the diverse religious factors that influenced the ability of the Muslim government to rule
     5.Understands the diverse cultural factors that influenced the ability of the Muslim government to rule
     6.Understands the diverse geographic factors that influenced the ability of the Muslim government to rule
     7.Understands how Islam attracted new converts
   Benchmark 4.Understands how the Byzantine Empire defended itself against various invaders (e.g., variations in maritime technology and ship design in the 9th century and the role of the navy in Byzantine defense against Arab Muslim attacks; weapons, fortification, and military preparedness of the Byzantine Empire and explanations for its successful defense against Bulgar and Arab invaders)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows variations in maritime technology and ship design in the 9th century and the role of the navy in Byzantine defense against Arab Muslim attacks
     2.Knows the weapons, fortification, and military preparedness of the Byzantine Empire
     3.Knows explanations for the Byzantine Empire’s successful defense against Bulgar and Arab invaders
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the political, social, and religious problems confronting the Byzantine and Sassanid Persian Empires in the 7th century and the commercial role of Arabia in the Southwest Asian economy
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political problems confronting the Byzantine empire in the 7th century
     2.Understands the religious problems confronting the Byzantine empire in the 7th century
     3.Understands the social problems confronting the Byzantine empire in the 7th century
     4.Understands the political problems confronting the Sassanid Persian empire in the 7th century
     5.Understands the religious problems confronting the Byzantine empire in the 7th century
     6.Understands the social problems confronting the Sassanid Persian empire in the 7th century
     7.Understands the commercial role of Arabia in the Southwest Asian economy
   Benchmark 3.Understands the strengths and weaknesses of the Abbasid, Byzantine, and Sassanid Persian governments and military institutions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the strengths of the Abbasid government institutions
     2.Understands the weaknesses of the Abbasid military institutions
     3.Understands the strengths of the Abbasid military institutions
     4.Understands the weaknesses of the Abbasid military institutions
     5.Understands the strengths of the Byzantine government institutions
     6.Understands the weaknesses of the Byzantine government institutions
     7.Understands the strengths of the Byzantine military institutions
     8.Understands the weaknesses of the Byzantine military institutions
     9.Understands the strengths of the Sassanid Persian government institutions
     10.Understands the weaknesses of the Sassanid Persian government institutions
     11.Understands the strengths of the Sassanid Persian military institutions
     12.Understands the weaknesses of the Sassanid Persian military institutions
 Standard 17.  Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands social features of Mayan culture (e.g., differing views concerning the causes for the decline of Mayan civilization, ways that Mayan myths reflect social values and daily survival skills)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows differing views concerning the causes for the decline of Mayan civilization
     2.Knows ways that Mayan myths reflect social values and daily survival skills
 Standard 18.  Understands major global trends from 300 to 1000 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the factors that contributed to the weakening of empires in world history from 300 to 1000 CE (e.g., the migratory and military movements of pastoral nomadic peoples from Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula and the consequences of these movements for empires and agrarian civilizations of Eurasia and Africa)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the migratory and military movements of pastoral nomadic peoples from Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula
     2.Understands the consequences of the movements of pastoral nomadic peoples from Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula for empires of Eurasia and Africa
     3.Understands the consequences of the movements of pastoral nomadic peoples from Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula for agrarian civilizations of Eurasia and Africa
 Standard 21.  Understands the rise of the Mongol Empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples from 1200 to 1350
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands factors that contributed to the division and eventual decline of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Kahn (e.g., disputes over succession, the absence of a bureaucracy, conflicts between nomadic traditions and the ideas of conquered urban cultures)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands factors that contributed to the division of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Kahn
     2.Understands factors that contributed to the eventual decline of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Kahn
     3.Understands disputes over succession to Chinggis Kahn in the Mongol empire
     4.Understands the role of the absence of a bureaucracy in the eventual decline of the Mongol empire
     5.Understands conflicts between nomadic traditions and the ideas of conquered urban cultures and the role of these conflicts in the decline of the Mongol empire
   Benchmark 6.Knows the consequences of the death of the Great Khan Ogodei for the Mongol enterprise in Eastern Europe and that of the Great Khan Mongke for the Mongol plans to invade Egypt
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the consequences of the death of the Great Khan Ogodei for the Mongol enterprise in Eastern Europe
     2.Knows the consequences of the death of the Great Khan Mongke for the Mongol plans to invade Egypt
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the origins and early expansion of the Ottoman Empire up to the capture of Constantinople in 1453
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of the Ottoman Empire
     2.Understands early expansion of the Ottoman Empire up to the capture of Constantinople in 1453
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the Aztec Empire arose in the 14th century (e.g., major aspects of Aztec government, society, religion and culture; the construction of Tenochtitl n, the "Foundation of Heaven")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major aspects of Aztec government
     2.Understands major aspects of Aztec society
     3.Understands major aspects of Aztec religion
     4.Understands major aspects of Aztec culture
     5.Understands the construction of Tenochtitlán, the "Foundation of Heaven"
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands features of Spanish exploration and conquest (e.g., why the Spanish wanted to invade the Incan and Aztec Empires, and why these empires collapsed after the conflict with the Spanish; interaction between the Spanish and indigenous populations such as the Inca and the Aztec; different perspectives on Cort‚s journey into Mexico)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of Spanish exploration
     2.Understands features of Spanish conquest
     3.Knows why the Spanish wanted to invade the Incan and Aztec Empires
     4.Understands why the Aztec and Incan empires collapsed after the conflict with the Spanish
     5.Understands interaction between the Spanish and indigenous populations such as the Inca and the Aztec
     6.Knows different perspectives on Cortés’ journey into Mexico
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands cultural interaction between various societies in the late 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., how the Church helped administer Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas; reasons for the fall of the Incan Empire to Pizarro; how the Portuguese dominated seaborne trade in the Indian Ocean basin in the 16th century; the relations between pilgrims and indigenous populations in North and South America, and the role different religious sects played in these relations; how the presence of Spanish conquerors affected the daily lives of Aztec, Maya, and Inca peoples)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Church helped administer Spanish colonies in the Americas
     2.Understands how the Church helped administer Portuguese colonies in the Americas
     3.Knows reasons for the fall of the Incan Empire to Pizarro
     4.Understands how the Portuguese dominated seaborne trade in the Indian Ocean basin in the 16th century
     5.Understands the relations between pilgrims and indigenous populations in North and South America, and the role different religious sects played in these relations
     6.Understands how the presence of Spanish conquerors affected the daily lives of Aztec, Maya, and Inca peoples
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands political achievements of the Safavid and Mughal Empires (e.g., how Persia was unified by the Turkic Safavids, the political and cultural achievements of the Safavid Golden Age under Shah Abbas I, the Mughal conquest of India and how the Turkic warrior class united diverse peoples of the Indian continent)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political achievements of the Safavid Empire
     2.Understands political achievements of the Mughal Empire
     3.Understands how Persia was unified by the Turkic Safavids
     4.Understands the political achievements of the Safavid Golden Age under Shah Abbas I
     5.Understands the cultural achievements of the Safavid Golden Age under Shah Abbas I
     6.Knows features of the Mughal conquest of India
     7.Understands how the Turkic warrior class united diverse peoples of the Indian continent
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands major political events in the rise and decline of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the emergence of the Ottomans as a regional and world power between 1450 and 1650, the Ottoman Empire in the context of the Byzantine and Roman Empires, Austrian and Russian responses to Ottoman aggression, significant events in the expansion and recession of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the 17th centuries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major political events in the rise of the Ottoman Empire
     2.Understands major political events in the decline of the Ottoman Empire
     3.Understands the emergence of the Ottomans as a regional and world power between 1450 and 1650
     4.Understands the Ottoman Empire in the context of the Byzantine and Roman Empires
     5.Understands Austrian and Russian responses to Ottoman aggression
     6.Knows significant events in the expansion of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the 17th centuries
     7.Knows significant events in the recession of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the 17th centuries
   Benchmark 6.Understands the origins and development of the Safavid Empire (e.g., how Ismail created the Safavid Empire with the support of Qizilbash nomadic tribesmen; the evolution of Safavid social and political system from the nomadic-warrior years of Ismail to the golden age of Shah Abbas I)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of the Safavid Empire
     2.Understands events in the development of the Safavid Empire
     3.Knows how Ismail created the Safavid Empire with the support of Qizilbash nomadic tribesmen
     4.Understands the evolution of Safavid social and political system from the nomadic warrior years of Ismail to the golden age of Shah Abbas I
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the development of different African societies (e.g., the development, characteristics, and decline of the Songhay Empire in the 16th century, the regional and international circumstances under which large new states such as Lunda and Buganda emerged in East and Central Africa, the history of the African kingdom of Palmares in Brazil)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of the Songhay Empire in the 16th century
     2.Knows the characteristics of the Songhay Empire in the 16th century
     3.Understands the decline of the Songhay Empire in the 16th century
     4.Knows the regional and international circumstances under which large new states such as Lunda and Buganda emerged in East and Central Africa
     5.Knows the history of the African kingdom of Palmares in Brazil
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the events that led to the demise of centralized control by the imperial Mughals and the ascent of Maratha and Sikh power in India
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the events that led to the demise of centralized control by the imperial Mughals
     2.Knows the events that led to the ascent of Maratha and Sikh power in India
 Standard 31.  Understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the catalysts behind the shift of economic power from the Mediterranean basin to Northern Europe during the 16th century
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands changes in social and political elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., reasons for the empire's retreat from the Balkans and Black Sea region; the lives of different members of Ottoman society such as the janissary, attendees of the Palace School, the role of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changes in social elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries
     2.Understands changes in political elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries
     3.Knows reasons for the Ottoman Empire’s retreat from the Balkans and Black Sea region
     4.Understands the lives of different members of Ottoman society such as the janissary, attendees of the Palace School, the role of women
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century (e.g., the defensive reform programs of Selim III and Mahmud II, and the challenges they faced in resolving the empire's political and economic crisis; sources of weakness of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century; the military training and equipment of the Janissary Corps; how and when territory of the Ottoman Empire changed during the first half of the 19th century; causes of the Crimean War, the main events, nations involved, and forms of warfare employed)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the defensive reform programs of Selim III and Mahmud II and the challenges they faced in resolving the empire’s political and economic crisis
     2.Knows sources of weakness of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century
     3.Understands the military training and equipment of the Janissary Corps
     4.Understands how and when territory of the Ottoman Empire changed during the first half of the 19th century
     5.Knows causes of the Crimean War
     6.Knows the main events of the Crimean War
     7.Knows the nations involved in the Crimean War
     8.Knows the forms of warfare employed in the Crimean War
   Benchmark 3.Understands the impact of foreign trade and politics on Indian culture (e.g., major trade routes that linked China, India, and Europe, and the impact of this trade on Indian agriculture and industry; the decline of the Mughal empire and the rise of British political and military influence in India between 1750 and 1858; the competitive policies of the British and the French in India, and why the British East India Company was able to prevail; the goods imported to and exported from India)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of foreign trade on Indian culture
     2.Understands the impact of foreign politics on Indian culture
     3.Knows major trade routes that linked China, India, and Europe
     4.Understands the impact of trade between China, India, and Europe on Indian agriculture and industry
     5.Understands the decline of the Mughal empire and the rise of British political and military influence in India between 1750 and 1858
     6.Knows the competitive policies of the British and the French in India
     7.Knows why the British East India Company was able to prevail over the French East India Company in India
     8.Knows the goods imported to and exported from India
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands events that shaped African relations with other countries (e.g., the rise of the Zulu empire and its effects on African societies and European colonial settlements; how the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa affected British investors and race relations among Africans, Afrikaners, and British colonial authorities; the relationship between European and African merchants and the types of products traded between the two in the period after slavery ended)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of the Zulu empire
     2.Understands the effects of the Zulu Empire on African societies and European colonial settlements
     3.Understands how the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa affected British investors
     4.Understands how the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa affected race relations among Africans, Afrikaners, and British colonial authorities
     5.Understands the relationship between European and African merchants
     6.Knows the types of products traded between European and African merchants in the period after slavery ended
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on European migration, immigration, and emigration patterns throughout the world between 1846 and 1932 (e.g., the geographical, political, economic, and epidemiological factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions; possible connections of the rise of the Zulu Empire in South Africa to European settlements in the Cape Region; relations between migrating European and African peoples that laid the foundation for the apartheid system in the 20th century; how technology such as the steamship and the railroad facilitated emigration)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the geographical factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
     2.Understands the political factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
     3.Understands the economic factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
     4.Understands the epidemiological factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
     5.Understands possible connections of the rise of the Zulu Empire in South Africa to European settlements in the Cape Region
     6.Understands relations between migrating European and African peoples that laid the foundation for the apartheid system in the 20th century
     7.Knows how technology such as the steamship and the railroad facilitated emigration
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands events that led to an easing of Cold War tensions from the 1970s to the early 1990s (e.g., why the Cold War eased in the 1970s and how the Helsinki Accords, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and Reagan-Gorbachev "summit diplomacy" affected progress toward detente; the collapse of the government of the Soviet Union and other communist governments around the world in the late 1980s and 1990s; the internal and external forces that led to changes within the USSR and in its relations with Eastern European countries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why the Cold War eased in the 1970s
     2.Understands how the Helsinki Accords affected progress toward detente
     3.Understands how the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan affected progress toward detente
     4.Understands how Reagan and Gorbachev "summit diplomacy" affected progress toward detente
     5.Understands the collapse of the government of the Soviet Union and other communist governments around the world in the late 1980s and 1990s

United States History

 Standard 1.  Understands the characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the rise and decline of the Mississippian mound-building society
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands aspects of the rise of the Mississippian mound-building society
     2.Understands aspects of the decline of the Mississippian mound-building society