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Topic: Language and writing 

World History

 Standard 1.  Understands the biological and cultural processes that shaped the earliest human communities
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands environmental, biological, and cultural influences on early human communities (e.g., how language helped early humans hunt, establish roles, rules, and structure within communities; the proposition that Mesolithic peoples were the first to take advantage of a changing climate; biological and cultural relationships between Neanderthal and Homo sapiens sapiens)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands environmental influences on early human communities
     2.Understands biological influences on early human communities
     3.Understands cultural influences on early human communities
     4.Understands how language helped early humans hunt, establish roles, rules, and structure within communities
     5.Knows the proposition that Mesolithic peoples were the first to take advantage of a changing climate
     6.Understands the biological and cultural relationships between Neanderthal and Homo sapiens sapiens
 Standard 3.  Understands the major characteristics of civilization and the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the characteristics of writing forms in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley and how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the characteristics of writing forms in Mesopotamia
     2.Understands the characteristics of writing forms in early Egypt
     3.Understands the characteristics of writing forms in the Indus Valley
     4.Understands how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life in Mesopotamia
     5.Understands how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life in early Egypt
     6.Understands how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life in the Indus Valley
 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the development of different types of tools influenced Chinese civilization (e.g., the uses and significance of bronze tool-making technology, weapons, and luxury goods in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE; the unique nature of Chinese writing tools, surfaces, and styles in the 2nd millennia BCE)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows a variety of technologies, tools, and goods developed in China in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE
     2.Understands the uses of bronze tool making technology, weapons, and luxury goods in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE
     3.Understands the significance of bronze tool making technology, weapons, and luxury goods in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE
     4.Understands the unique nature of Chinese writing tools, surfaces, and styles in the 2nd millennium BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social, cultural, and political characteristics of the Shang Dynasty (e.g., the development of royal government under the Shang Dynasty and the development of social hierarchy, religious institutions, and writing; the role that Chinese peasants played in sustaining the wealth and power of the Shang political centers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social characteristics of the Shang Dynasty
     2.Understands the cultural characteristics of the Shang Dynasty
     3.Understands the political characteristics of the Shang Dynasty
     4.Understands the development of royal government under the Shang Dynasty
     5.Understands the development of social hierarchy under the Shang Dynasty
     6.Understands the development of religious institutions under the Shang Dynasty
     7.Understands the development of writing under the Shang Dynasty
     8.Understands the role that Chinese peasants played in sustaining the wealth and power of the Shang political centers
   Benchmark 5.Understands evidence of social and cultural development of Chinese civilization in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE (e.g., evidence that the Chinese had developed urbanization, sophisticated social cooperation, and written language before 1700 BCE; the physical evidence that highlights possible cultural contact between China and other centers of civilization in antiquity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows evidence that the Chinese had developed urbanization before 1700 BCE
     2.Knows evidence that the Chinese had developed sophisticated social cooperation before 1700 BCE
     3.Knows evidence that the Chinese had developed written language before 1700 BCE
     4.Knows the physical evidence that highlights possible cultural contact between China and other centers of civilization in antiquity
 Standard 5.  Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the development of Indo-European language (e.g., the probable geographic homeland of speakers of early Indo-European languages and the spread of the language to other parts of Eurasia, languages which developed from the Indo-European root language)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the probable geographic homeland of speakers of early Indo-European languages
     2.Understands the spread of Indo-European language to other parts of Eurasia
     3.Knows languages which developed from the Indo-European root language
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands cultural elements of the Aryan civilization (e.g., Aryan culture in India as denoted in linguistic, literary, and archaeological materials; beliefs expressed in the Vedic hymns; the root of the word "Aryan," those people who came to be called Indo-Aryan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Aryan culture in India as denoted in linguistic materials
     2.Understands Aryan culture in India as denoted in literary materials
     3.Understands Aryan culture in India as denoted in archaeological materials
     4.Understands beliefs expressed in the Vedic hymns as a component of Aryan culture
     5.Understands the root of the word "Aryan," those people who came to be called Indo Aryan
   Benchmark 5.Knows the migration routes of Indo-European language speakers and the approximate dates of their arrivals in new locations during the second millenium BCE
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the migration routes of Indo European language speakers
     2.Knows the approximate dates of Indo-European language speakers’ arrivals in new locations during the 2nd millennium BCE
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands cultural elements of Kush society and their interaction with Egyptian civilization (e.g., the linguistic, architectural, and artistic achievements of Kush in the Meroitic period; how Assyrian and Kushite invasions affected Egyptian society; the social and political consequences of economic contacts between Kush and Egypt)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cultural elements of Kush society
     2.Understands the interaction of Kush society with Egyptian civilization
     3.Knows the linguistic achievements of Kush in the Meroitic period
     4.Knows the architectural achievements of Kush in the Meroitic period
     5.Knows the artistic achievements of Kush in the Meroitic period
     6.Understands how Assyrian and Kushite invasions affected Egyptian society
     7.Understands the social consequences of economic contacts between Kush and Egypt
     8.Understands the political consequences of economic contacts between Kush and Egypt
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the implementation of laws and the spread of language influenced societies of the Mediterranean Basin and Southwest Asia (e.g., the social and cultural effects of the spread of alphabetic writing in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean Basin, social sources of and differences in laws created by early lawmakers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the implementation of laws influenced societies of the Mediterranean Basin
     2.Understands how the implementation of laws influenced societies of Southwest Asia
     3.Understands how the spread of language influenced societies of the Mediterranean Basin
     4.Understands how the spread of language influenced societies of Southwest Asia
     5.Understands the social and cultural effects of the spread of alphabetic writing in Southwest Asia
     6.Understands the social and cultural effects of the spread of alphabetic writing in the Mediterranean Basin
     7.Understands social sources of and differences in laws created by early lawmakers
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the political, commercial, and cultural uses of Latin and Greek as universal languages of the Roman Empire
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political uses of Latin and Greek as universal languages of the Roman Empire
     2.Understands the commercial uses of Latin and Greek as universal languages of the Roman Empire
     3.Understands the cultural uses of Latin and Greek as universal languages of the Roman Empire
 Standard 11.  Understands major global trends from 1000 BCE to 300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of large regional empires (e.g., the significance of military power, state bureaucracy, legal codes, belief systems, written languages, and communications and trade networks; how trade networks, merchant communities, state power, tributary systems of production, and other factors contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro-Eurasia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of military power in the development of large regional empires
     2.Understands the significance of state bureaucracy in the development of large regional empires
     3.Understands the significance of legal codes in the development of large regional empires
     4.Understands the significance of belief systems in the development of large regional empires
     5.Understands the significance of written languages in the development of large regional empires
     6.Understands the significance of communications and trade networks in the development of large regional empires
     7.Understands how trade networks contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     8.Understands how merchant communities contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     9.Understands how state power contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     10.Understands how tributary systems of production contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     11.Understand how other factors contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands significant social and cultural changes in Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries (e.g., the changing position of women in the new Islam, how Muslim mosque architecture physically reflects the relationship between people, spiritual leaders, and God in Islam; the process through which Arabic became a common language in the early Islamic centuries; what branches of. scholarship developed out of the efforts of Muslim leaders and scholars to record the Qur'an and Hadith)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the changing position of women in the new Islam
     2.Understands how Muslim mosque architecture physically reflects the relationship between people, spiritual leaders, and God in Islam
     3.Understands the process through which Arabic became a common language in the early Islamic centuries
     4.Knows what branches of scholarship developed out of the efforts of Muslim leaders and scholars to record the Qur’an and Hadit
 Standard 14.  Understands major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang Dynasty from 600 to 900 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands events that shaped Japanese culture (e.g., the influence of Chinese culture on Japanese society from the 7th to the 11th century; use of Chinese as the lingua franca in East Asia in the late 1st millennium; major contributions and developments of early cultures of Japan from 10,000 B.C.E. to circa 200 CE; the influence of Buddhism on Japan between the 8th and 9th centuries, how it changed Japanese society, and reasons for its restriction by the emperor in Heian)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of Chinese culture on Japanese society from the 7th to the 11th century
     2.Understands the use of Chinese as the lingua franca in East Asia in the late 1st millennium
     3.Understands major contributions and developments of early cultures of Japan from 10,000 B.C.E. to circa 200 CE
     4.Understands the influence of Buddhism on Japan between the 8th and 9th centuries and how it changed Japanese society
     5.Understands reasons for the restriction of Buddhism in Japan by the emperor in Heian
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the influence of Chinese culture on different countries (e.g., the political and cultural influence of Tang China in East Asian countries such as Korea, Vietnam, and Japan; the uniqueness of the Chinese writing system and how Japan adapted this system to fit the spoken language of Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political of Tang China in East Asian countries such as Korea, Vietnam, and Japan
     2.Understands the cultural influence of Tang China in East Asian countries such as Korea, Vietnam, and Japan
     3.Understands the uniqueness of the Chinese writing system
     4.Understands how Japan adapted the Chinese writing system to fit the spoken language of Japan
 Standard 22.  Understands the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the emergence of commercial towns on the East African coast and the significance of Swahili as the language of trade
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the emergence of commercial towns on the East African coast
     2.Understands the significance of Swahili as the language of trade
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the role of language in shaping African society (e.g., class structure and cultural influence of Swahili-speaking towns of East Africa; relationships among modern Bantu languages and what these relationships reveal about migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples; the interaction of religion with wealth, language, and country of origin in influencing social status)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the class structure and cultural influence of Swahili speaking towns of East Africa
     2.Understands relationships among modern Bantu languages and what these relationships reveal about migrations of Bantu speaking peoples
     3.Understands the interaction of religion with wealth, language, and country of origin in influencing social status
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 8.Understands significant cultural and political changes in India in the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., changing linguistic and religious diversity in India between the early 18th and late 19th centuries, the significant changes in political control and boundaries in India between 1798 and 1850)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant cultural changes in India in the 18th and 19th centuries
     2.Understands significant political changes in India in the 18th and 19th centuries
     3.Understands changing linguistic diversity in India between the early 18th and late 19th centuries
     4.Understands changing religious diversity in India between the early 18th and late 19th centuries
     5.Knows the significant changes in political control and boundaries in India between 1798 and 1850