Standards Database Logo
Home | Browse | Search | Purpose | History | Process | Acknowledgment| Reference

 


 


Topic: Technological design and development 

Engineering Education

 Standard 14.  Uses the design process to solve problems
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands that engineering design is an iterative process involving modeling and optimization to find the best solution within given constraints
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that engineering design is an iterative process
     2.Understands that engineering design is an iterative process involving modeling to find the best solution within given constraints
     3.Understands that engineering design is an iterative process involving optimization to find the best solution within given constraints
 Standard 17.  Understands elements of production planning
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Designs, produces, and tests prototypes of products
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Designs prototypes of products
     2.Produces prototypes of products
     3.Tests prototypes of products
   Benchmark 8.Knows how computer software is used in the planning of a manufacturing project (e.g., use Computer Aided Design [CAD] software to a design prototype)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that computer software is used in the planning of a manufacturing projects

Technology

 Standard 3.  Understands the relationships among science, technology, society, and the individual
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities and differences (e.g., scientists propose explanations for questions about the natural world that are always tentative and evolving, and engineers propose solutions relating to human problems, needs, and aspirations; both science and technology depend on accurate scientific information and they cannot contravene scientific laws)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities
     2.Knows that scientific inquiry and technological design have differences
     3.Knows that scientists propose explanations for questions about the natural world that are always tentative and evolving while engineers propose solutions for relating to human problems, needs, and aspirations
     4.Knows that both science technology depend on accurate scientific information and they cannot contravene scientific laws
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows ways in which social and economic forces influence which technologies will be developed and used (e.g., cultural and personal values, consumer acceptance, patent laws, availability of risk capital, the federal budget, local and national regulations, media attention, economic competition, tax incentives)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which social forces influence which technologies will be developed
     3.Knows ways in which economic forces influence which technologies will be developed
     5.Knows that cultural and personal values may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     6.Knows that consumer acceptance may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     7.Knows that patent laws may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     8.Knows that the availability of risk capital may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     9.Knows that the federal budget may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     10.Knows that local and national regulations may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     11.Knows that media attention may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     12.Knows that economic competition may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     13.Knows that tax incentives may influence which technologies will be developed and used
   Benchmark 3.Knows that alternatives, risks, costs, and benefits must be considered when deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies or to curtail existing ones (e.g., Are there alternative ways to achieve the same ends? Who benefits and who suffers? What are the financial and social costs and who bears them? How serious are the risks and who is in jeopardy? What resources will be needed and where will they come from?)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that alternatives must be considered when deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies
     3.Knows that risks must be considered when deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies
     5.Knows that costs must be considered when deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies
     7.Knows that benefits must be considered when deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies
     9.Knows that alternative ways to achieve the same ends needs to be considered when deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies or to curtail existing ones
     10.Knows that who benefits and who suffers from technologies needs to be considered when deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies or to curtail existing ones
     11.Knows that the financial and social costs and who bears them needs to be considered when deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies or to curtail existing ones
     12.Knows that the risks of technologies and who is in jeopardy needs to be considered when deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies or to curtail existing ones
     13.Knows that the resources needs and how they will be supplied needs to be considered when deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies or to curtail existing ones
   Benchmark 5.Knows examples of advanced and emerging technologies (e.g., virtual environment, personal digital assistants, voice recognition software) and how they could impact society
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows examples of advanced technologies
     2.Knows examples of emerging technologies
     3.Knows that virtual environment is an example of an advanced and emerging technology
     4.Knows that the personal digital assistant (PDA) is an example of an advanced and emerging technology
     5.Knows that voice recognition software is an example of an advanced and emerging technology
   Benchmark 6.Knows that the rate of technological development and diffusion is increasing rapidly, even though individual technologies may be developed at a slow pace due to technical difficulties or consumer resistance
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the rate of technological development is increasing rapidly
     2.Knows that the rate of technological diffusion is increasing rapidly
     3.Knows that individual technologies may be developed at a slow pace due to technical difficulties
     4.Knows that individual technologies may be developed at a slow pace due to consumer resistance
   Benchmark 8.Knows that mathematics, creativity, logic, and originality are all needed to improve technology
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that mathematics is needed to improve technology
     2.Knows that creativity is needed to improve technology
     3.Knows that logic is needed to improve technology
     4.Knows that originality is needed to improve technology
 Standard 4.  Understands the nature of technological design
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 4.Identifies a simple problem that can be solved using technology
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that some problems can be solved with technology
   Benchmark 9.Knows that different technologies can often be combined (e.g., an escalator uses both pulleys and an electric motor)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows examples of combined technologies
     2.Understands that an escalator combines two different technologies, pulleys and an electric motor
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Identifies appropriate problems which can be solved using technological design (e.g., identifies a specific need, considers its various aspects, considers criteria for a suitable product)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Identifies appropriate problems which can be solved using technological design by identifying a specific need
     2.Identifies appropriate problems which can be solved using technological design by considering its various aspects
     3.Identifies appropriate problems which can be solved using technological design by considering criteria for a suitable product
   Benchmark 4.Designs a solution or product, taking into account needs and constraints (e.g., cost, time, trade-offs, properties of materials, safety, aesthetics)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Designs a solution or product, taking into account needs
     2.Designs a solution or product, taking into account constraints
     3.Designs a solution or product, taking costs into account
     4.Designs a solution or product, taking time into account
     5.Designs a solution or product, taking trade-offs into account
     6.Designs a solution or product, taking the properties of the materials into account
     7.Designs a solution or product, taking safety into account
     8.Designs a solution or product, taking aesthetics into account
 Standard 6.  Understands the nature and uses of different forms of technology
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 3.Knows that different types of energy (e.g., solar, fossil fuels) have different advantages and disadvantages (e.g., solar energy is a cleaner source of energy than fossil fuels, but currently is more expensive), and that regardless of the source of energy, the technological design should attempt to maximize the use of it
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands that regardless of the source of energy, the technological design should attempt to maximize the use of it
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands scientific principles of energy, work, and power in relation to technological design (e.g., the Second Law of Thermodynamics means that a system cannot be designed which is 100% efficient)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands scientific principles of energy in relation to technological design
     2.Understands scientific principles of work in relation to technological design
     3.Understands scientific principles of power in relation to technological design
     4.Understands that the Second Law of Thermodynamics means that a system cannot be designed which is 100% efficient