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Topic: Vocabulary acquisition and use 

Common Core English Language Arts

 Strand  Language
  Kindergarten
   L.K.4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
   L.K.4.a.Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
   L.K.4.b.Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.
   L.K.5.With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
   L.K.5.b.Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
   L.K.5.c.Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).
   L.K.5.d.Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.
   L.K.6.Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.
  Grade 1
   L.1.4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
   L.1.4.a.Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.1.4.b.Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
   L.1.4.c.Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).
   L.1.5.With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
   L.1.5.a.Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
   L.1.5.b.Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).
   L.1.5.c.Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
   L.1.5.d.Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.
   L.1.6.Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).
  Grade 2
   L.2.4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
   L.2.4.a.Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.2.4.b.Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
   L.2.4.c.Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
   L.2.4.d.Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
   L.2.4.e.Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.
   L.2.5.a.Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).
   L.2.5.b.Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).
   L.2.6.Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).
 Strand  Language
  Grade 3
   L.3.4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
   L.3.4.a.Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.3.4.b.Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable, comfortable/uncomfortable, care/careless, heat/preheat).
   L.3.4.d.Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
   L.3.5.Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
   L.3.5.a.Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps).
   L.3.5.b.Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly or helpful).
   L.3.6.Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domainspecific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them).
  Grade 4
   L.4.4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
   L.4.4.a.Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.4.4.b.Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
   L.4.4.c.Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
   L.4.5.a.Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
   L.4.5.b.Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
   L.4.5.c.Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
   L.4.6.Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).
  Grade 5
   L.5.4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
   L.5.4.a.Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.5.4.b.Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).
   L.5.4.c.Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
   L.5.5.Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
   L.5.5.a.Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
   L.5.5.b.Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
   L.5.5.c.Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words.
   L.5.6.Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).
 Strand  Language
  Grade 6
   L.6.4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
   L.6.4.a.Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.6.4.b.Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).
   L.6.4.c.Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
   L.6.4.d.Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
   L.6.5.Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
   L.6.5.a.Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
   L.6.5.b.Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words.
   L.6.5.c.Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty).
   L.6.6.Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
  Grade 7
   L.7.4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
   L.7.4.a.Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.7.4.c.Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
   L.7.4.d.Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
   L.7.5.Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
   L.7.5.a.Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions) in context.
   L.7.5.b.Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the words.
   L.7.5.c.Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending).
   L.7.6.Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
  Grade 8
   L.8.4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
   L.8.4.a.Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.8.4.b.Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede).
   L.8.4.c.Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
   L.8.4.d.Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
   L.8.5.Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
   L.8.5.a.Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context.
   L.8.5.b.Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.
   L.8.5.c.Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute).
   L.8.6.Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
 Strand  Language
  Grades 9-10
   L.9-10.4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
   L.9-10.4.a.Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.9-10.4.b.Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
   L.9-10.4.c.Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
   L.9-10.4.d.Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
   L.9-10.5.Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
   L.9-10.5.a.Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
   L.9-10.5.b.Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
   L.9-10.6.Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
  Grades 11-12
   L.11-12.4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11-12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
   L.11-12.4.a.Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.11-12.4.b.Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
   L.11-12.4.c.Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
   L.11-12.4.d.Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
   L.11-12.5.Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
   L.11-12.5.a.Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
   L.11-12.5.b.Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
   L.11-12.6.Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
 Strand  Language
  College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards
   L.4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
   L.5.Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
   L.6.Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.