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Topic: Text types and purposes 

Common Core English Language Arts

 Strand  Writing
  Kindergarten
   W.K.1.Use a combination of drawing,dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is . . .).
   W.K.2.Use a combination of drawing,dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.
   W.K.3.Use a combination of drawing,dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.
  Grade 1
   W.1.1.Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.
   W.1.2.Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
  Grade 2
   W.2.1.Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
   W.2.2.Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.
   W.2.3.Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.
 Strand  Writing
  Grade 3
   W.3.1.Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
   W.3.1.a.Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
   W.3.1.b.Provide reasons that support the opinion.
   W.3.1.c.Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
   W.3.1.d.Provide a concluding statement or section (for an opinion piece).
   W.3.2.Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
   W.3.2.a.Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
   W.3.2.b.Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
   W.3.2.c.Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
   W.3.3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
   W.3.3.a.Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
   W.3.3.b.Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
   W.3.3.c.Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
  Grade 4
   W.4.1.Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
   W.4.1.a.Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
   W.4.1.b.Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
   W.4.1.c.Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).
   W.4.1.d.Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
   W.4.2.Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
   W.4.2.a.Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
   W.4.2.b.Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
   W.4.2.c.Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
   W.4.2.d.Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
   W.4.2.e.Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
   W.4.3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
   W.4.3.a.Orient the reader by establishing a situationand introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
   W.4.3.b.Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
   W.4.3.c.Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
   W.4.3.d.Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
   W.4.3.e.Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  Grade 5
   W.5.1.Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
   W.5.1.a.Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
   W.5.1.b.Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
   W.5.1.c.Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).
   W.5.1.d.Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
   W.5.2.Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
   W.5.2.a.Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
   W.5.2.b.Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
   W.5.2.c.Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).
   W.5.2.d.Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
   W.5.2.e.Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
   W.5.3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
   W.5.3.a.Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
   W.5.3.b.Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
   W.5.3.c.Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
   W.5.3.d.Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
   W.5.3.e.Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
 Strand  Writing
  Grade 6
   W.6.1.Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
   W.6.1.a.Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
   W.6.1.b.Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
   W.6.1.c.Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
   W.6.1.d.Establish and maintain a formal style.
   W.6.1.e.Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.
   W.6.2.Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
   W.6.2.a.Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
   W.6.2.b.Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
   W.6.2.c.Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
   W.6.2.d.Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
   W.6.2.e.Establish and maintain a formal style.
   W.6.2.f.Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.
   W.6.3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
   W.6.3.a.Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
   W.6.3.b.Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
   W.6.3.c.Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
   W.6.3.d.Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
   W.6.3.e.Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  Grade 7
   W.7.1.Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
   W.7.1.a.Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
   W.7.1.b.Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
   W.7.1.c.Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
   W.7.1.d.Establish and maintain a formal style.
   W.7.1.e.Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
   W.7.2.Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
   W.7.2.a.Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/ effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
   W.7.2.b.Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
   W.7.2.c.Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
   W.7.2.d.Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
   W.7.2.e.Establish and maintain a formal style.
   W.7.2.f.Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
   W.7.3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
   W.7.3.a.Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
   W.7.3.b.Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
   W.7.3.c.Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
   W.7.3.d.Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
   W.7.3.e.Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
  Grade 8
   W.8.1.Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
   W.8.1.a.Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
   W.8.1.b.Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
   W.8.1.c.Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
   W.8.1.d.Establish and maintain a formal style.
   W.8.1.e.Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
   W.8.2.Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
   W.8.2.a.Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
   W.8.2.b.Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
   W.8.2.c.Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
   W.8.2.d.Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
   W.8.2.e.Establish and maintain a formal style.
   W.8.2.f.Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
   W.8.3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
   W.8.3.a.Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
   W.8.3.b.Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
   W.8.3.c.Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
   W.8.3.d.Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
   W.8.3.e.Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
 Strand  Writing
  Grades 9-10
   W.9-10.1.Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
   W.9-10.1.a.Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
   W.9-10.1.b.Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
   W.9-10.1.c.Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
   W.9-10.1.d.Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
   W.9-10.1.e.Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
   W.9-10.2.Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
   W.9-10.2.a.Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
   W.9-10.2.b.Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
   W.9-10.2.c.Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
   W.9-10.2.d.Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
   W.9-10.2.e.Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
   W.9-10.2.e.Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
   W.9-10.3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
   W.9-10.3.a.Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
   W.9-10.3.b.Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
   W.9-10.3.c.Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
   W.9-10.3.d.Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
   W.9-10.3.e.Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
  Grades 11-12
   W.11-12.1.Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
   W.11-12.1.a.Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
   W.11-12.1.b.Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
   W.11-12.1.c.Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
   W.11-12.1.d.Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
   W.11-12.1.e.Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
   W.11-12.2.Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
   W.11-12.2.a.Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
   W.11-12.2.b.Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
   W.11-12.2.c.Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
   W.11-12.2.d.Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
   W.11-12.2.e.Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
   W.11-12.2.f.Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
   W.11-12.3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
   W.11-12.3.a.Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
   W.11-12.3.b.Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
   W.11-12.3.c.Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
   W.11-12.3.d.Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
   W.11-12.3.e.Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
 Strand  Writing
  College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards
   W.1.Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
   W.2.Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
   W.3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.