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Topic: Reform movements 

United States History

 Standard 12.  Understands the sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the religious revivals that swept the nation in the early 19th century (e.g., the importance of the Second Great Awakening, the messages of Great Awakening leaders such as Charles Finney and Peter Cartwright)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of the Second Great Awakening
     2.Understands the messages of Great Awakening leaders
     3.Understands the message of Great Awakening leader Charles Finney
     4.Understands the message of Great Awakening leader Peter Cartwright
   Benchmark 4.Understands the role of women in the reform movements in antebellum America (e.g., the contributions of individuals of different racial and social groups, the types of reforms women sought, how fashion became a part of the movement for women’s rights)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the contributions of individuals of different racial groups in the reform movements in antebellum America
     2.Understands the contributions of individuals of different social groups in the reform movements in antebellum America
     3.Understands the types of reforms women sought in the reform movements in antebellum America
     4.Understands how fashion became a part of the movement for women’s rights
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the significant religious, philosophical, and social movements of the 19th century and their impacts on American society and social reform (e.g., the impact of the Second Great Awakening on issues such as public education, temperance, women's suffrage, and abolitionism; Transcendentalism and the literary works of its central leaders; Transcendentalist ideas about the individual, society, and nature)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significant religious movements of the 19th century
     2.Understands the significant philosophical movements of the 19th century
     3.Understands the significant social movements of the 19th century
     4.Understands the impacts of significant religious movements of the 19th century on American society
     5.Understands the impacts of significant philosophical movements of the 19th century on American society
     6.Understands the impacts of significant social movements of the 19th century on American society
     7.Understands the impacts of significant religious movements of the 19th century on American social reform
     8.Understands the impacts of significant philosophical movements of the 19th century on American social reform
     9.Understands the impacts of significant social movements of the 19th century on American social reform
     10.Understands the impact of the Second Great Awakening on public education
     11.Understands the impact of the Second Great Awakening on the issue of temperance
     12.Understands the impact of the Second Great Awakening on the issue of abolitionism
     13.Understands Transcendentalism
     14.Knows about the literary works of the central leaders of Transcendentalism
     15.Understands Transcendentalist ideas about the individual
     16.Understands Transcendentalist ideas about society
     17.Understands Transcendentalist ideas about nature
   Benchmark 3.Understands how women influenced reform movements and American society during the antebellum period (e.g., the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" of 1848, the leadership role women played in major reform movements, how the public at large viewed these women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how women influenced reform movements during the antebellum period
     2.Understands how women influenced American society during the antebellum period
     3.Knows about the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" of 1848
     4.Understands the leadership role women played in major reform movements during the antebellum period
     5.Understands how the public at large viewed the women involved in reform during the antebellum period
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the social impact of the Second Great Awakening (e.g., how Great Awakening leaders affected ordinary people; how the belief in individual responsibility for salvation and millenialism influenced reform movements; the role of moral suasion, social control, and compromise in reform)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Great Awakening leaders affected ordinary people
     2.Understands how the belief in individual responsibility for salvation influenced reform movements
     3.Understands how the belief in individual responsibility for millenialism influenced reform movements
     4.Understands the role of moral suasion in the Second Great Awakening
     5.Understands the role of social control in reform during the Second Great Awakening
     6.Understands the role of compromise in reform during the Second Great Awakening
   Benchmark 3.Understands the ideas of Transcendentalism (e.g., views of Transcendentalists about good and evil, authority, tradition, and reform; similarities and differences between Transcendentalists and evangelical Protestants)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the views of Transcendentalists about good and evil
     2.Understands the views of Transcendentalists about authority
     3.Understands the views of Transcendentalists about tradition
     4.Understands the views of Transcendentalists about reform
     5.Understands the similarities between Transcendentalists and evangelical Protestants
     6.Understands the differences between Transcendentalists and evangelical Protestants
   Benchmark 4.Understands the development of Utopian communities (e.g., origins, beliefs, size, how their ideas compared to Transcendentalists)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of Utopian communities
     2.Understands the beliefs of Utopian communities
     3.Understands the size of Utopian communities
     4.Understands how the ideas of Utopian communities compared to Transcendentalists
   Benchmark 6.Understands the ideas associated with women's rights during the antebellum period (e.g., the goals and ideas of the antebellum women's movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism, how the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" relates to the ideas of the Declaration of Independence, the connection between the evangelical movement and the idea of southern woman, and the extent to which southern women endorsed the "Declaration of Sentiments")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the goals of the antebellum women’s movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism
     2.Understands the ideas of the antebellum women’s movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism
     3.Understands how the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" relates to the ideas of the Declaration of Independence
     4.Understands the connection between the evangelical movement and the idea of southern woman
     5.Understands the extent to which southern women endorsed the "Declaration of Sentiments"
 Standard 20.  Understands how Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands Progressive ideas and reform efforts (e.g., the Progressive idea of a democracy responsive to the needs of an industrial society, Progressive attempts at social and moral reform, conditions that inspired these reforms)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Progressive ideas
     2.Knows about Progressive reform efforts
     3.Understands the Progressive idea of a democracy responsive to the needs of an industrial society
     4.Knows about the Progressive attempts at social reform
     5.Knows about the Progressive attempts at moral reform
     6.Understands the conditions that inspired the Progressive attempts for reforms
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the origins and impact of the Progressive movement (e.g., social origins of Progressives and how these contributed to the success and failure of the movement; Progressive reforms pertaining to big business, and worker’s and consumer’s rights; arguments of Progressive leaders)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of the Progressive Movement
     2.Understands the impact of the Progressive Movement
     3.Understands the social origins of Progressives
     4.Understands how the social origins of Progressives contributed to the success of the movement
     5.Understands how the social origins of Progressives contributed to the failure of the movement
     6.Understands how Progressive reforms pertained to big business
     7.Understands how Progressive reforms pertained to worker’s rights
     8.Understands how Progressive reforms pertained to consumer’s rights
     9.Understands the arguments of Progressive leaders
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the Progressive movement influenced different groups in American society (e.g., counter-Progressive programs of labor organizations compared to social democratic programs in industrial Europe, the response of mainstream Progressives to women’s issues, the changing perception of Native American assimilation under Progressivism, the founding of the NAACP, how African American women contributed to the movement, how the International Ladies Garment Workers Union provided alternatives, the success of the Progressive movement to groups outside the mainstream)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how counter-Progressive programs of labor organizations compared to social democratic programs in industrial Europe
     2.Understands the response of mainstream Progressives to women’s issues
     3.Understands the changing perception of Native American assimilation under Progressivism
     4.Knows about the founding of the NAACP
     5.Understands how African American women contributed to the Progressive Movement
     6.Understands how the International Ladies Garment Workers Union provided alternatives
     7.Understands the success of the Progressive movement to groups outside the mainstream

World History

 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how different religious movements influenced various cultures between the 11th and 13th centuries (e.g., the origins and growth of the North African Islamic reform movements; the impact of Christian campaigns of the Crusades on the societies and Muslim populations of Cairo, Damascus, and Sicily)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the origins of the North African Islamic reform movements
     2.Understands the growth of the North African Islamic reform movements
     3.Understands the impact of Christian campaigns of the Crusades on the societies and Muslim populations of Cairo, Damascus, and Sicily
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 6.Understands events and ideas that led to the modernization of Japan (e.g., the internal and external causes of the Meiji Restoration; the goals and policies of the Meiji state, and the impact of these upon Japan's modernization; what Commodore Matthew Perry accomplished in Japan in the 1850s and what his voyage meant for the Japanese)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands events that led to the modernization of Japan
     2.Understands ideas that led to the modernization of Japan
     3.Know the internal causes of the Meiji Restoration
     4.Knows the external causes of the Meiji Restoration
     6.Understands the impact of the goals and policies of the Meiji state upon Japan’s modernization
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the origins of Japanese modernization and Japan's changing policies toward Western influences (e.g., the impact of Western ideas and the role of Confucianism and Shinto traditional values on Japan in the Meiji period, the role of the samurai in the events leading up to the Mejii Restoration)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of Japanese modernization
     2.Understands Japan’s changing policies toward Western influences
     4.Understands the role of Confucianism and Shinto traditional values in Japan in the Meiji period
     5.Knows the role of the samurai in the events leading up to the Mejii Restoration
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands events that shaped the social structure of Russia in the 19th century (e.g., relations between the Russian peasantry and land-owning aristocracy, and the persistence of serfdom; the czarist reform movements of the 1820s and how they appealed to different social sectors; Czar Nicholas I's positions on the creation of a constitution, freedom of the press, the Decembrist uprising, the Polish rebellion, and the process of Russification)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the czarist reform movements of the 1820s and how they appealed to different social sectors
     4.Knows Czar Nicholas I’s positions on the creation of a constitution, freedom of the press, the Decembrist uprising, the Polish rebellion, and the process of Russification
   Benchmark 6.Understands Japan’s political and social transformation in the 19th century (e.g., Japan’s transformation from a hereditary social system to a middle-class society; how Japan’s relations with China and the Western powers changed from the 1850s to the 1890s; the goals of the new imperial government, as outlined in the Charter Oath of 1868; reasons for Japan’s rapid industrialization and its response to Western commerce; aspects of Western society that appealed to 19th-century Japanese; who benefited and suffered in the initial decades of industrialization and nation building)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Japan’s political transformation in the 19th century
     2.Understands Japan’s social transformation in the 19th century
     3.Understands Japan’s transformation from a hereditary social system to a middle class society
   Benchmark 8.Understands events that shaped the expansion and development of Russia in the 19th century and early 20th century (e.g., the causes of the Crimean War and its consequences for Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France; the limits of Russian expansion eastward across Siberia and southward beyond the Caspian Sea; why Russia invaded the Ottoman territory in the early 1850s; how the Crimean War led to political and social reform for Russia; how Pan-Slavism affected Russian foreign policy in the late 19th century; what the Trans-Siberian and other railroad routes tell about Russian development and expansion from 1801 to 1914)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     10.Understands how the Crimean War led to political and social reform for Russia
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the ideas that influenced the nationalist movements (e.g., major characteristics of 19th-century European nationalism, and connections between nationalist ideology, the French Revolution, Romanticism, and liberal reform movements; the extent to which Garibaldi reflected 19th-century Romanticism; the purpose of Bismarck's "Blood and Iron" speech, and previous attempts at unification to which he refers; the chronology of significant events in the unifications of Italy and Germany)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands connections between nationalist ideology, the French Revolution, Romanticism, and liberal reform movements
   Benchmark 2.Understands movements and ideas that contributed to social change in 19th-century North America and Europe (e.g., the leading ideas of Karl Marx and the impact of Marxist beliefs and programs on politics, industry, and labor relations in Europe; the origins of women's suffrage in North America and Europe, leading figures on both continents, and their success until World War I)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands movements and ideas that contributed to social change in 19th century North America
     2.Understands movements and ideas that contributed to social change in 19th century Europe
     5.Knows the origins of women’s suffrage in North America
     6.Knows the origins of women’s suffrage in Europe
     7.Knows leading figures in the women’s suffrage movement in North America
     8.Knows leading figures in the women’s suffrage movement in Europe
     9.Understands the success of the women’s suffrage movement in North America until World War I
     10.Understands the success of the women’s suffrage movement in Europe until World War I
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands factors that led to social and political change in 19th-century Europe (e.g., the interconnections between labor movements, various forms of socialism, and political or social changes in Europe; the influence of industrialization, democratization, and nationalism on popular 19th-century reform movements; the extent to which Britain, France, and Italy become broadly liberal and democratic societies in the 19th century; the broad beneficial and detrimental effects of the industrial revolution on specific European countries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands factors that led to social change in 19th century Europe
     2.Understands factors that led to political change in 19th century Europe
     3.Understands the interconnections between labor movements, various forms of socialism, and political or social changes in Europe
     4.Understands the influence of industrialization, democratization, and nationalism on popular 19th century reform movements
     5.Understands the extent to which Britain became a broadly liberal and democratic society in the 19th century
     6.Understands the extent to which France became a broadly liberal and democratic society in the 19th century
     7.Understands the extent to which Italy became a broadly liberal and democratic society in the 19th century
   Benchmark 10.Understands how different movements and ideas influenced society in the 19th century (e.g., the effect of the continental revolutions on the Chartist movement in England, and how the ruling classes reacted to Chartist demands; the essential ideas outlined in Marx and Engel's Communist Manifesto and their meaning in the context of late 19th-century economic, political, and social conditions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the effect of the continental revolutions on the Chartist movement in England
     2.Understands how the ruling classes reacted to Chartist demands
     3.Knows the essential ideas outlined in Marx and Engel’s Communist Manifesto
     4.Understands the meaning of ideas in Marx and Engel’s Communist Manifesto in the context of late 19th century economic, political, and social conditions
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands political and economic changes in Japanese society in the 19th and 20th centuries (e.g., Japan's rapid industrialization, technological advancement, and national integration in the late 19th and 20th centuries; the death of the Meiji emperor in 1912 and the main achievements of Meiji Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political changes in Japanese society in the 19th and 20th centuries
     7.Knows the main achievements of Meiji Japan
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands where Christianity and Islam grew in this era, and understands the causes of 19th-century reform movements or renewal in Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the causes of 19th century reform movements or renewal in Buddhism
     4.Understands the causes of 19th century reform movements or renewal in Christianity
     5.Understands the causes of 19th century reform movements or renewal in Hinduism
     6.Understands the causes of 19th century reform movements or renewal in Islam
     7.Understands the causes of 19th century reform movements or renewal in Judaism
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the process of educational reform in various Muslim regions during the 19th century (e.g., the new institutions that were established, the effect of this reform on women, those areas that wholly embraced Western values, and those that rejected them)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the effect of educational reforms on women in Muslim regions in the 19th century
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands prominent features and ideas of liberalism, social reformism, conservatism, and socialism in the early 20th century (e.g., the "welfare state" promoted by liberal ideals; the influential ideas of leading Europeans such as Stanley Baldwin, Ramsay MacDonald, Emmeline Pankhurst, Jean JaurŠs, Raymond Poincar‚ Peter Stolypin, Alfred Krupp, or Rosa Luxemborg)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands prominent features and ideas of liberalism in the early 20th century
     2.Understands prominent features and ideas of social reformism in the early 20th century
     3.Understands prominent features and ideas of conservatism in the early 20th century
     4.Understands prominent features and ideas of socialism in the early 20th century
     5.Understands the concept of the "welfare state" promoted by liberal ideals
     6.Understands the influential ideas of leading Europeans such as Stanley Baldwin, Ramsay MacDonald, Emmeline Pankhurst, Jean Jaurès, Raymond Poincaré Peter Stolypin, Alfred Krupp, or Rosa Luxemborg
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the diverse factors that contributed to the industrialization of various countries (e.g., how entrepreneurs, scientists, technicians, and urban workers in Asia, Africa, and Latin America participated in world trade and industrialization; how changes in land ownership policy, new technology, and government subsidies encouraged industrial development in Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how changes in land ownership policy, new technology, and government subsidies encouraged industrial development in Japan
   Benchmark 5.Understands the reforms of Ottoman government and society advocated by the Young Turk movement, its origins, and possible reasons for its success
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the reforms of Ottoman government and society advocated by the Young Turk movement
     2.Knows the origins of the Young Turk movement
     3.Knows possible reasons for the success of the Young Turk movement
 Standard 39.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War I
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the influence of Lenin and Stalin on the government, economy, and social conditions in Russia and the Soviet Union after the Revolution of 1917 (e.g., the effects of Lenin's New Economic Policy on Soviet society, economy, and government; why and how Stalin changed Lenin's policy and forced collectivization, and the consequences of resistance to this policy for the kulaks; how people who were persecuted survived during Stalin's purges)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of Lenin on the government in Russia and the Soviet Union after the Revolution of 1917
     2.Understands the influence of Stalin on the government in Russia and the Soviet Union after the Revolution of 1917
     3.Understands the influence of Lenin on the economy in Russia and the Soviet Union after the Revolution of 1917
     4.Understands the influence of Stalin on the economy in Russia and the Soviet Union after the Revolution of 1917
     5.Understands the influence of Lenin on the social conditions in Russia and the Soviet Union after the Revolution of 1917
     6.Understands the influence of Stalin on the social conditions in Russia and the Soviet Union after the Revolution of 1917
     7.Understands the effects of Lenin’s New Economic Policy on Soviet society
     8.Understands the effects of Lenin’s New Economic Policy on the Soviet economy
     9.Understands the effects of Lenin’s New Economic Policy on the Soviet government
     10.Understands why Stalin changed Lenin’s policy and forced collectivization
     11.Understands how Stalin changed Lenin’s policy and forced collectivization
     12.Understands the consequences of resistance to collectivization for the kulaks
     13.Understands how people who were persecuted survived during Stalin’s purges
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the role of Stalin in the emerging Soviet Union (e.g., to what degree Stalin was able to accomplish his goal of bringing the USSR to industrial parity with the West, the unique problems in industrialization Stalin faced, and how this model differed from those of Western nations; what primary sources reveal about the human cost of Stalinist totalitarianism in the USSR in the 1920s and 1930s)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands to what degree Stalin was able to accomplish his goal of bringing the USSR to industrial parity with the West
     2.Understands the unique problems in industrialization Stalin faced
     3.Understands how this model of industrialization differed from those of Western nations
     4.Understands what primary sources reveal about the human cost of Stalinist totalitarianism in the USSR in the 1920s and 1930s
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands factors that brought about the political and economic transformation of Western and Eastern Europe after World War II (e.g., how Western European countries and Japan achieved rapid economic recovery after the war; the impact of the Marshall Plan, the European Economic Community, government planning, and the growth of welfare states upon the political stabilization of Western Europe; the formations of the Warsaw Pact and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization after the war, and which countries have participated in each of these pacts; why Germany and Berlin were divided after the 1948 crisis, and the resulting problems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands factors that brought about the political and economic transformation of Western Europe after World War II
     2.Understands factors that brought about the political and economic transformation of Eastern Europe after World War II
     4.Understands the impact of the Marshall Plan upon the political stabilization of Western Europe
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how feminist movements and social conditions have affected the lives of women around the world, and the extent of women's progress toward social equality, economic opportunity, and political rights in various countries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how feminist movements and social conditions have affected the lives of women around the world
     2.Understands the extent of women’s progress toward social equality in various countries
     3.Understands the extent of women’s progress toward economic opportunity in various countries
     4.Understands the extent of women’s progress toward political rights in various countries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the role of political ideology, religion, and ethnicity in shaping modern governments (e.g., the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in different countries and challenges to civil society in democratic states; how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America; the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state-building in the newly independent republics of Africa; significant differences among nationalist movements in Eastern Europe that have developed in the 20th century, how resulting conflicts have been resolved, and the outcomes of these conflicts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa,
     6.Understands how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Asia
     7.Understands how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Latin America
   Benchmark 13.Understands how global political change has altered the world economy (e.g., what participation in the world economy can mean for different countries; the relationship between demands for democratic reform and the trend toward privatization and economic liberalization in developing economies and former communist states, and how multilateral aid organizations and multinational corporations have supported or challenged these trends)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the relationship between demands for democratic reform and the trend toward privatization and economic liberalization in developing economies and former communist states
   Benchmark 14.Understands how specific countries have implemented social and cultural changes (e.g., the different manifestations of China's contingency quest for a "new culture" throughout the 20th century, and what the Cultural Revolution meant for Chinese people in the late 1960s; models for family life, the economy, and social and political institutions suggested by modern Muslim intellectuals)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands what the Cultural Revolution meant for Chinese people in the late 1960s
     5.Knows models for family life, the economy, and social and political institutions suggested by modern Muslim intellectuals