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Topic: Feedback in systems 

Technology

 Standard 5.  Understands the nature and operation of systems
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how part of a system can provide feedback when its output (in the form of material, energy, or information) becomes input for another part of the system
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how part of a system can provide feedback when its output, in the form of material, becomes input for another part of the system
     2.Knows how part of a system can provide feedback when its output, in the form of energy, becomes input for another part of the system
     3.Knows how part of a system can provide feedback when its output, in the form of information, becomes input for another part of the system
   Benchmark 6.Knows that an open-loop system (e.g., a microwave as a heating system) has no feedback and requires human intervention, where a closed-loop system (e.g., a household heating system with a thermostat) uses feedback
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that an open-loop system has no feedback and requires human intervention
     2.Knows that a closed-loop system uses feedback
     3.Understands that a microwave is an example of an open-looped system that requires human intervention
     4.Understands that a household heating system with a thermostat is an example of a closed-loop system that relies on feedback
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Knows how feedback can be used to help monitor, control, and stabilize the operation of a system
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how feedback can be used to help monitor the operation of a system
     2.Knows how feedback can be used to help control the operation of a system
     3.Knows how feedback can be used to help stabilize the operation of a system
 Standard 6.  Understands the nature and uses of different forms of technology
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Knows that power systems (i.e., systems which convert energy from one form to another) have a source of energy, a process, loads, and some have a feedback system
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that power systems are systems which convert energy from one form to another
     2.Knows that power systems have a source of energy
     3.Knows that power systems have a process
     4.Knows that power systems have a load

Engineering Education

 Standard 4.  Knows applications of electrical skills and theories
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands mechanical and servo control (i.e., computer controlled systems that use feedback loops) systems
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that feedback loops are used to control the output of a computer controlled system
     2.Knows that a servo control system is a system of devices that provides a feedback loop
     3.Understands that mechanical control systems receive input from the user
     4.Understands simple servo control systems
     5.Understands simple control diagrams for electrical systems