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Topic: Design process  

Technology

 Standard 4.  Understands the nature of technological design
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that materials and equipment can be combined in different ways to make something new (e.g., building a tent using a sheet around a table, using molding clay to make pretend food)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that materials can be combined in different ways to make something new
     2.Knows that equipment can be combined in different ways to make something new
     3.Knows that a tent can be built using a sheet around a table
     4.Knows that molding clay can be used to make pretend food
   Benchmark 2.Knows ways to communicate design ideas (e.g., pictures, models)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that design ideas may be presented through pictures
     2.Knows that design ideas may be presented through models
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 4.Knows that planning is an important part of the design process
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that designs tell how to construct something
   Benchmark 5.Knows that new objects can be created out of physical materials (e.g., paper, cloth)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that new objects can be created out of paper
     2.Knows that new objects can be created out of cloth
   Benchmark 6.Knows that because there may be multiple solutions to a design problem, each appropriate to different situations, many creative ideas can be useful
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that there may be multiple solutions to a design problem
     2.Knows that different solutions to a design problem are appropriate to different situations
     3.Knows that many creative ideas can be useful when encountering a design problem
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that group collaboration is useful as the combination of multiple creative minds can yield more possible design solutions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that group collaboration is useful in the design process
     2.Knows that group collaboration allows the combination of multiple creative minds
     3.Knows that the combination of multiple creative minds can yield more possible design solutions
   Benchmark 3.Knows that the design process is a series of methodical steps for turning ideas into useful products and systems
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the design process is a series of methodical steps
     2.Knows that the design process turns ideas into useful products and systems
   Benchmark 5.Knows constraints that must be considered when designing a solution to a problem (e.g., cost, materials, time, space, safety, scientific laws, engineering principles, construction techniques, appearance, environmental impact, what will happen if the solution fails)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that cost must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     2.Knows that materials must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     3.Knows that time must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     4.Knows that space must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     5.Knows that safety must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     6.Knows that scientific laws must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     7.Knows that engineering principles must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     8.Knows that construction techniques must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     9.Knows that appearance must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     10.Knows that environmental impacts must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     11.Knows that the possibility of failure must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that the design process is a slow, methodical process of test and refinement
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the design process is a slow, methodical process
     2.Knows that the design process is a process of test and refinement
   Benchmark 2.Knows that the design process relies on different strategies: creative brainstorming to establish many design solutions, evaluating the feasibility of various solutions in order to choose a design, and troubleshooting the selected design
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the design process relies on creative brainstorming to establish many design solutions
     2.Knows that the design process relies on evaluating the feasibility of various solutions in order to choose a design
     3.Knows that the design process relies on troubleshooting the selected design
     4.Knows strategies important to the design process
   Benchmark 7.Understands that nonphysical objects (e.g., software) and physical objects (e.g., a telephone) are both subject to the design process
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that nonphysical objects are subject to the design process
     2.Understands that physical objects are subject to the design process
     3.Knows that computer software is a nonphysical object that is subject to the design process
     4.Knows that the telephone is a physical object that is subject to the design process
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that an optimal solution to a design problem is more likely to be found when the process followed is systematic and repetitive
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of an optimal solution
     2.Understands the importance of a systematic process when seeking an optimal solution
     3.Understands the importance of a repetitive process when seeking an optimal solution
   Benchmark 2.Proposes designs and uses models, simulations, and other tests to choose an optimal solution
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Proposes a design, using models to choose an optimal solution
     2.Proposes a design, using simulations to choose an optimal solution
   Benchmark 6.Knows that a design involves different design factors (e.g., ergonomics, maintenance and repair, environmental concerns) and design principles (e.g., flexibility, proportion, function)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that a design involves different design factors
     2.Knows that a design involves different design principles
     3.Knows that ergonomics is one factor involved in design
     4.Knows that maintenance and repair is one factor involved in design
     5.Knows that environmental impact is one factor involved in design
     6.Knows that flexibility is one principle involved in design
     7.Knows that proportion is one principle involved in design
     8.Knows that function is one principle involved in design
 Standard 5.  Understands the nature and operation of systems
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that understanding how things work and designing solutions to problems of almost any kind can be facilitated by systems thinking, which employs mathematical modeling and simulation
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that understanding how things work can be facilitated by systems thinking
     2.Knows that designing solutions to problems of almost any kind can be facilitated by systems thinking
     3.Understands that systems thinking employs mathematical modeling and simulation
 Standard 6.  Understands the nature and uses of different forms of technology
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 6.Knows that manufacturing processes include designing the product, gathering natural and/or synthetic resources, and final production
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the basic manufacturing process
     2.Knows that the manufacturing process includes product design
     3.Knows that the manufacturing process includes gathering resources

Engineering Education

 Standard 14.  Uses the design process to solve problems
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands that engineering design is an iterative process involving modeling and optimization to find the best solution within given constraints
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that engineering design is an iterative process
     2.Understands that engineering design is an iterative process involving modeling to find the best solution within given constraints
     3.Understands that engineering design is an iterative process involving optimization to find the best solution within given constraints
   Benchmark 4.Understands how societal interests, economics, ergonomics, and environmental considerations influence a solution
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how societal interests influence a solution
     2.Understands how economics influence a solution
     3.Understands how ergonomics influence a solution
     4.Understands how environmental considerations influence a solution
   Benchmark 6.Uses optimization techniques, such as linear programming, to determine optimum solutions to problems
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses linear programming to determine optimum solutions to problems
     2.Uses optimization technique to determine optimum solutions to problems
 Standard 16.  Understands various manufacturing processes
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the role of research and development in the production of new or improved products, processes, and materials
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of research in the production of new products
     2.Understands the role of research in the production of improved products
     3.Understands the role of research in the production of new processes
     4.Understands the role of research in the production of improved processes
     5.Understands the role of research in the production of new materials
     6.Understands the role of research in the production of improved materials
     7.Understands the role of development in the production of new products
     8.Understands the role of development in the production of improved products
     9.Understands the role of development in the production of improved processes