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Topic: Design considerations 

Technology

 Standard 4.  Understands the nature of technological design
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 5.Knows constraints that must be considered when designing a solution to a problem (e.g., cost, materials, time, space, safety, scientific laws, engineering principles, construction techniques, appearance, environmental impact, what will happen if the solution fails)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that cost must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     2.Knows that materials must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     3.Knows that time must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     4.Knows that space must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     5.Knows that safety must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     6.Knows that scientific laws must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     7.Knows that engineering principles must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     8.Knows that construction techniques must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     9.Knows that appearance must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     10.Knows that environmental impacts must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
     11.Knows that the possibility of failure must be considered when designing a solution to a problem
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Evaluates a designed solution and its consequences based on the needs or criteria the solution was designed to meet
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Evaluates a designed solution based on the needs or criteria the solution was designed to meet
     2.Evaluates the consequences of a designed solution based on the needs or criteria the solution was designed to meet
   Benchmark 5.Knows that since there is no such thing as a perfect design, trade-offs of one criterion for another must occur to find an optimized solution
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that there is no such thing as a perfect design
     2.Understands that trade-offs of one criterion for another must occur to find an optimized solution
   Benchmark 6.Knows that a design involves different design factors (e.g., ergonomics, maintenance and repair, environmental concerns) and design principles (e.g., flexibility, proportion, function)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that a design involves different design factors
     2.Knows that a design involves different design principles
     3.Knows that ergonomics is one factor involved in design
     4.Knows that maintenance and repair is one factor involved in design
     5.Knows that environmental impact is one factor involved in design
     6.Knows that flexibility is one principle involved in design
     7.Knows that proportion is one principle involved in design
     8.Knows that function is one principle involved in design
 Standard 6.  Understands the nature and uses of different forms of technology
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows that most technological systems require an input of energy, which is an important consideration both in designing an object or a system and in conserving energy (e.g., so many things require energy that alternative sources to fossil fuels should be used when possible)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that most technological systems require an input of energy
     2.Knows that energy requirements must be is an important considered when designing an object or a system
     3.Understands that because so many things require energy, alternative sources to fossil fuels should be used when possible
   Benchmark 7.Knows that construction design is influenced by factors such as building laws and codes, style, convenience, cost, climate, and function
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that construction design is influenced by building laws and codes
     2.Knows that construction design is influenced by style
     3.Knows that construction design is influenced by convenience
     4.Knows that construction design is influenced by cost
     5.Knows that construction design is influenced by climate
     6.Knows that construction design is influenced by function
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Knows different requirements for structural design (e.g., strength, maintenance, appearance) and that these structures require maintenance
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows different requirements for structural design
     2.Knows that strength is a requirement of structural design
     3.Knows that maintenance is a requirement of structural design
     4.Knows that appearance is a requirement of structural design

Engineering Education

 Standard 14.  Uses the design process to solve problems
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how societal interests, economics, ergonomics, and environmental considerations influence a solution
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how societal interests influence a solution
     2.Understands how economics influence a solution
     3.Understands how ergonomics influence a solution
     4.Understands how environmental considerations influence a solution
 Standard 17.  Understands elements of production planning
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Knows economic factors to consider before beginning a manufacturing project (e.g., estimating supplies, materials, and labor costs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows economic factors, such as estimating supplies, to consider before beginning a manufacturing project
     2.Knows economic factors, such as materials, to consider before beginning a manufacturing project
     3.Knows economic factors, such as labor costs, to consider before beginning a manufacturing project
   Benchmark 5.Knows the effects of a chosen solution using the seven inputs of a technological system (people, machines & tools, materials, information, energy, finances, and time) in regards to human and society needs
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the seven inputs of a technological system
     2.Knows the effects of a chosen solution in regards to human and society needs using people
     3.Knows the effects of a chosen solution in regards to human and society needs using machines and tools
     4.Knows the effects of a chosen solution in regards to human and society needs using materials
     7.Knows the effects of a chosen solution in regards to human and society needs using time
   Benchmark 6.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as safety, function, cost, ease of operation, quality of post-purchase support, and environmental impact when selecting systems for specific purposes
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that there may be tradeoffs among characteristics when selecting systems for specific purposes
     2.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as safety and function when selecting systems for specific purposes
     3.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as safety and cost when selecting systems for specific purposes
     4.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as safety and ease of operation when selecting systems for specific purposes
     6.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as safety and quality of post-purchase support when selecting systems for specific purposes
     7.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as safety and environmental impact when selecting systems for specific purposes
     8.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as function and cost when selecting systems for specific purposes
     9.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as function and ease of operation when selecting systems for specific purposes
     10.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as function and quality of post-purchase support when selecting systems for specific purposes
     11.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as function and environmental impact when selecting systems for specific purposes
     12.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as cost and ease of operation when selecting systems for specific purposes
     13.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as cost and quality of post-purchase support when selecting systems for specific purposes
     14.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as cost and environmental impact when selecting systems for specific purposes
     15.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as ease of operation and quality of post-purchase support when selecting systems for specific purposes
     16.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as ease of operation and environmental impact when selecting systems for specific purposes
     17.Understands tradeoffs among characteristics such as quality of post-purchase support and environmental impact when selecting systems for specific purposes
 Standard 19.  Understands the interrelationship of manufacturing and society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how human need drives the manufacturing industry (e.g., types and amounts of products produced)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how human need drives the manufacturing industry such as types of products produced
   Benchmark 4.Understands the factors that drive plant-location decisions (e.g., labor costs, transportation costs, market locations, climate, availability of resources)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the factors, such as labor costs, that drive plant-location decisions
     2.Understands the factors, such as transportation costs, that drive plant-location decisions
     3.Understands the factors, such as market locations, that drive plant-location decisions
     4.Understands the factors, such as climate, that drive plant-location decisions
     6.Understands the factors, such as availability of resources, that drive plant-location decisions