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Topic: Atomic structure 

Science

 Standard 8.  Understands the structure and properties of matter
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the structure of an atom (e.g., negative electrons occupy most of the space in the atom; neutrons and positive protons make up the nucleus of the atom; protons and neutrons are almost two thousand times heavier than an electron; the electric force between the nucleus and electrons holds the atom together)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the electric force between the nucleus and electrons hold atoms together
     2.Knows that negative electrons occupy most of space in atom
     3.Knows that neutrons and positive protons make up nucleus of atom
     4.Knows that protons are almost two thousand times heavier than electrons
     5.Knows that neutrons are almost two thousand times heavier than electrons
     6.Knows that neutrons and protons are made of even smaller constituents
   Benchmark 3.Knows how the electron configuration of atoms governs the chemical properties of an element as atoms interact with one another by transferring or sharing the outermost electrons
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the electron configuration of an atom governs the chemical properties of that element
     2.Knows that atoms interact by transferring or sharing their outermost electrons
   Benchmark 6.Knows that the number of electrons in an atom determines whether the atom is electrically neutral or an ion (i.e., electrically neutral atoms contain equal numbers of protons and electrons; a positively charged atom has lost one or more electrons; a negatively charged atom has gained one or more electrons)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the number of electrons in an atom determine whether that atom is electrically neutral
     2.Knows that the number of electrons in an atom determine whether that atom is an ion
     3.Knows that electrically neutral atoms contain equal numbers of protons and electrons
     4.Knows a positively charged atom has lost one or more electrons
     5.Knows a negatively charged atom has gained one or more electrons
   Benchmark 7.Knows that most elements have two or more isotopes (i.e., atoms that differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus); although the number of neutrons has little effect on how the atom interacts with others, it does affect the mass and stability of the nucleus
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that most elements have two or more isotopes
     2.Knows that isotopes are atoms that differ by the number of neutrons in the nucleus
     3.Knows that the number of neutrons in the nucleus has little effect on how that atom interacts with others
     4.Knows that the number of neutrons in the nucleus affects the mass of the nucleus
     5.Knows that the number of neutrons in the nucleus affects the stability of the nucleus
   Benchmark 8.Knows how radioactive isotopes can be used to estimate the age of materials that contain them because radioactive isotopes undergo spontaneous nuclear reactions and emit particles and/or wavelike radiation; the decay of any one nucleus cannot be predicted, but a large group of identical nuclei decay at a predictable rate, which can be used to estimate the material’s age
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how radioactive isotopes can be used to estimate the age of materials that contain them
     2.Knows how radioactive isotopes undergo spontaneous nuclear reaction
     3.Knows that radioactive isotopes emit particles
     4.Knows that radioactive isotopes emit wavelike radiation
     5.Knows that the decay of one nucleus cannot be predicted
     6.Knows that a large group of identical nuclei decay at a predictable rate which can estimate a material’s age
   Benchmark 9.Knows that neutrons and protons are made up of even smaller constituents
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that neutrons are made up of smaller constituents
     2.Knows that protons are made up of smaller constituents
 Standard 10.  Understands forces and motion
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Knows that electromagnetic forces exist within and between atoms (e.g., electric forces between oppositely charged electrons and protons hold atoms and molecules together, and are involved in all chemical reactions; electric forces hold solid and liquid materials together and act between objects when they are in contact)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that electromagnetic forces exist within atoms
     2.Knows that electromagnetic forces exist between atoms
     3.Knows that electric forces between oppositely charged electrons and protons hold molecules together
     4.Knows that electric forces between oppositely charged electrons and protons hold atoms together
     5.Knows that electric forces are involved in all chemical reactions
     6.Knows that electric forces hold solid materials together
     7.Knows that electric forces hold liquid materials together
     8.Knows that electric forces act between objects when they are in contact