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Topic: Earth’s history 

Science

 Standard 1.  Understands atmospheric processes and the water cycle
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Knows how the evolution of life on Earth has dramatically changed the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere through time (e.g., the presence of one-celled organisms which produced the molecular oxygen in the atmosphere)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the evolution of one-celled organisms produced most of the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere
     2.Knows that the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere has changed over time
 Standard 2.  Understands Earth's composition and structure
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 5.Knows that fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that fossils provide evidence about plants that lived long ago
     2.Knows that fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago
     3.Knows that fossils provide evidence about the nature of the environment long ago
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 7.Knows how successive layers of sedimentary rock and the fossils contained within them can be used to confirm the age, history, and changing life forms of the Earth, and how this evidence is affected by the folding, breaking, and uplifting of layers
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how successive layers of sedimentary rocks are used to confirm the age of the Earth
     2.Knows how successive layers of sedimentary rocks are used to confirm the history of the Earth
     3.Knows how successive layers of sedimentary rocks are used to confirm the changing life forms on the Earth
     4.Knows how the folding of rock layers affect the evidence of the Earth’s history
     5.Knows how the breaking of rock layers affect the evidence of the Earth’s history
     6.Knows how the fossils in sedimentary rocks are used to confirm the age of the Earth
     7.Knows how the fossils in sedimentary rocks are used to confirm the history of the Earth
     8.Knows how the fossils in sedimentary rocks are used to confirm changing life forms on the Earth
     9.Knows how the uplifting of rock layers affects the evidence of the Earth’s history
   Benchmark 8.Knows that fossils provide important evidence of how environmental conditions have changed on the Earth over time (e.g., changes in atmospheric composition, movement of lithospheric plates, impact of an asteroid or comet)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that fossils provide evidence of asteroid and comet impacts
     2.Knows that fossils provide evidence of lithospheric plate movement
     3.Knows that fossils provide evidence of changes in atmospheric composition
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Knows methods used to estimate geologic time (e.g., observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations; using the known decay rates of radioactive isotopes present in rock to measure the time since the rock was formed)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the decay rates of radioactive isotopes in rock, which indicate the amount of time since the rock was formed, can be used to estimate geologic time
     2.Knows that the observation of rock sequences can be used to estimate geologic time
     3.Knows that the correlation of fossils sequences at various locations can be used to estimate geologic time
 Standard 7.  Understands biological evolution and the diversity of life
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that some kinds of organisms that once lived on Earth have completely disappeared (e.g., dinosaurs, trilobites, mammoths, horsetail trees)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that some organisms that once lived on Earth have disappeared
     2.Knows that dinosaurs no longer exist
     3.Knows that trilobites no longer exist
     4.Knows that mammoths no longer exist
     5.Knows that horsetail trees no longer exist
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that the fossil record, through geologic evidence, documents the appearance, diversification, and extinction of many life forms
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that fossils record geologic evidence
     2.Knows that fossils record the extinction of many life forms
     3.Knows that fossils document the appearance of many life forms
     4.Knows that fossils record the diversification of many life forms
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Knows the history of the origin and evolution of life on Earth (e.g., life on Earth is thought to have begun 3.5-4 billion years ago as simple, unicellular organisms; cells with nuclei evolved about a billion years ago, after which increasingly complex multicellular organisms evolved)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the history of the origin of life on Earth
     2.Knows the history of the evolution of life on Earth
     3.Knows that life is thought to have begun 3.5-4 billion years ago
     4.Knows that life is thought to have begun as simple, unicellular organisms
     5.Knows that cells with nuclei evolved about a billion years ago
     6.Knows that after cells with nuclei evolved, complex multicellular organisms evolved
 Standard 8.  Understands the structure and properties of matter
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Knows how radioactive isotopes can be used to estimate the age of materials that contain them because radioactive isotopes undergo spontaneous nuclear reactions and emit particles and/or wavelike radiation; the decay of any one nucleus cannot be predicted, but a large group of identical nuclei decay at a predictable rate, which can be used to estimate the material’s age
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how radioactive isotopes can be used to estimate the age of materials that contain them
     2.Knows how radioactive isotopes undergo spontaneous nuclear reaction
     3.Knows that radioactive isotopes emit particles
     4.Knows that radioactive isotopes emit wavelike radiation
     5.Knows that the decay of one nucleus cannot be predicted
     6.Knows that a large group of identical nuclei decay at a predictable rate which can estimate a material’s age