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Topic: Organizing information and ideas 

Language Arts

 Standard 1.  Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 5.Uses strategies to organize written work (e.g., includes a beginning, middle, and ending; uses a sequence of events)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses a sequence of events in written work
     2.Includes a beginning in written work
     3.Includes a middle in written work
     4.Includes an ending in written work
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Prewriting: Uses prewriting strategies to plan written work (e.g., uses graphic organizers, story maps, and webs; groups related ideas; takes notes; brainstorms ideas; organizes information according to type and purpose of writing)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Organizes information according to the purpose of the writing
     2.Uses graphic organizers to plan written work
     3.Uses story maps to plan written work
     4.Uses webs to plan written work
     5.Groups related ideas
     6.Takes notes to plan written work
     7.Brainstorms ideas appropriate to grades 3-5
     8.Organizes information according to the type of writing
   Benchmark 5.Uses strategies (e.g., adapts focus, organization, point of view; determines knowledge and interests of audience) to write for different audiences (e.g., self, peers, teachers, adults)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Determines interests of the audience when writing for adults
     2.Uses strategies to write for self
     3.Uses strategies to write for peers
     4.Uses strategies to write for teachers
     5.Uses strategies to write for adults
     6.Adapts focus to write for different audiences
     7.Adapts focus to write for self
     8.Adapts focus to write for peers
     9.Adapts focus to write for teachers
     11.Uses organization to write for different audiences
     12.Uses organization to write for self
     13.Uses organization to write for peers
     14.Uses organization to write for teachers
     15.Uses organization to write for adults
     16.Uses point of view to write for different audiences
     17.Uses point of view to write for self
     18.Uses point of view to write for peers
     19.Uses point of view to write for teachers
     20.Uses point of view to write for adults
     21.Determines knowledge of audience when writing for different audiences
     22.Determines knowledge of audience when writing for peers
     23.Determines knowledge of audience when writing for teachers
     24.Determines knowledge of audience when writing for adults
     25.Determines interests of audience when writing for different audiences
     26.Determines interests of audience when writing for peers
     27.Determines interests of audience when writing for teachers
   Benchmark 6.Uses strategies (e.g., adapts focus, point of view, organization, form) to write for a variety of purposes (e.g., to inform, entertain, explain, describe, record ideas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses form when writing to record ideas
     2.Uses strategies when writing to inform appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Uses strategies when writing to entertain appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Uses strategies when writing to explain appropriate to grades 3-5
     5.Uses strategies when writing to describe
     6.Uses strategies when writing to record ideas
     7.Adapts focus when writing for a variety of purposes
     8.Adapts focus when writing to inform
     9.Adapts focus when writing to entertain
     10.Adapts focus when writing to explain
     11.Adapts focus when writing to describe
     12.Adapts focus when writing to record ideas
     13.Uses point of view to write for a variety of purposes
     14.Uses point of view when writing to inform
     15.Uses point of view when writing to entertain
     16.Uses point of view when writing to explain
     17.Uses point of view when writing to describe
     18.Uses point of view when writing to record ideas
     19.Uses organization to write for a variety of purposes
     20.Uses organization when writing to inform
     21.Uses organization when writing to entertain
     22.Uses organization when writing to explain
     23.Uses organization when writing to describe
     24.Uses organization when writing to record ideas
     25.Uses form to write for a variety of purposes
     26.Uses form when writing to inform
     27.Uses form when writing to entertain
     28.Uses form when writing to explain
     29.Uses form when writing to describe
   Benchmark 8.Writes narrative accounts, such as poems and stories (e.g., establishes a context that enables the reader to imagine the event or experience; develops characters, setting, and plot; creates an organizing structure; uses transitions to sequence events; uses concrete sensory details; uses strategies such as dialogue, tension, and suspense; uses an identifiable voice)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses an identifiable voice in writing
     2.Writes poems
     3.Writes stories appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Establishes context to enable reader to imagine the event or experience
     5.Develops characters
     6.Develops setting
     7.Develops plot
     8.Creates an organizing structure
     9.Sequences events
     10.Uses transitions to sequence events
     11.Uses concrete sensory details
     12.Uses dialogue in narrative writing appropriate to grades 3-5
     13.Uses tension appropriate to grades 3-5
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses a variety of strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., analyzes and clarifies meaning, makes structural and syntactical changes, uses an organizational scheme, uses sensory words and figurative language, rethinks and rewrites for different audiences and purposes, checks for a consistent point of view and for transitions between paragraphs, uses direct feedback to revise compositions, eliminates redundancy in writing)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to grades 6-8
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to grades 6-8
     3.Analyzes meaning of own writing during drafting and revision
     4.Clarifies meaning of own writing during drafting and revision
     5.Makes structural changes to own writing during drafting and revision
     6.Makes syntactical changes to own writing during drafting and revision
     7.Uses organizational scheme in own writing during drafting and revision
     8.Uses sensory words
     9.Uses figurative language
     10.Rethinks writing for different audiences during drafting and revision
     11.Rethinks writing for different purposes during drafting and revision
     12.Rewrites writing for different audiences during drafting and revision
     13.Rewrites for different purposes
     14.Checks for consistent point of view during drafting and revision
     15.Checks for transitions between paragraphs during drafting and revision
     16.Uses direct feedback to revise compositions
     17.Eliminates redundancy in writing
   Benchmark 5.Uses content, style, and structure (e.g., formal or informal language, genre, organization) appropriate for specific audiences (e.g., public, private) and purposes (e.g., to entertain, to influence, to inform)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses a written structure appropriate for specific audiences
     2.Uses content appropriate for specific audiences when writing
     3.Uses style appropriate for specific audiences when writing
     4.Uses formal language appropriate for specific audiences when writing
     5.Uses informal language appropriate for specific audiences
     6.Uses genre appropriate for specific audiences
     7.Uses organization appropriate for specific audiences
     8.Uses structure appropriate for specific purposes
     9.Uses content appropriate for specific purposes
     10.Uses style appropriate for specific purposes
     11.Uses formal language appropriate for specific purposes
     12.Uses informal language appropriate for specific purposes
     13.Uses genre appropriate for specific purposes
     14.Uses organization appropriate for specific purposes
     15.Uses structure appropriate for public audiences
     16.Uses structure appropriate for private audiences
     17.Uses content appropriate for public audiences
     18.Uses content appropriate for private audiences
     19.Uses style appropriate for public audiences
     20.Uses style appropriate for private audiences
     21.Uses formal language appropriate for private audiences
     22.Uses formal language appropriate for public audiences
     23.Uses informal language appropriate for public audiences
     24.Uses informal language appropriate for private audiences
     25.Uses genre appropriate for public audiences
     26.Uses genre appropriate for private audiences
     27.Uses organization appropriate for public audiences
     28.Uses organization appropriate for private audiences
     29.Uses structure appropriate to entertain
     30.Uses structure appropriate to influence
     31.Uses structure appropriate to inform
     32.Uses content appropriate to entertain
     33.Uses content appropriate to influence
     34.Uses content appropriate to inform
     35.Uses style appropriate to entertain
     36.Uses style appropriate to influence
     37.Uses style appropriate to inform
     38.Uses formal language appropriate to entertain
     39.Uses formal language appropriate to influence
     40.Uses formal language appropriate to inform
     41.Uses informal language appropriate to entertain
     42.Uses informal language appropriate to influence
     43.Uses informal language appropriate to inform
     44.Uses genre appropriate to entertain
     45.Uses genre appropriate to influence
     46.Uses genre appropriate to inform
     47.Uses organization appropriate to entertain
     48.Uses organization appropriate to influence
     49.Uses organization appropriate to inform
   Benchmark 6.Writes expository compositions (e.g., states a thesis or purpose; presents information that reflects knowledge about the topic of the report; organizes and presents information in a logical manner, including an introduction and conclusion; uses own words to develop ideas; uses common expository structures and features, such as compare-contrast or problem-solution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.States a thesis in expository writing
     2.States a purpose for expository writing
     3.Presents information that reflects knowledge about the topic of the report
     4.Organizes information in a logical manner in expository writing
     5.Presents information in a logical manner in expository writing
     6.Includes an introduction in expository writing
     7.Includes a conclusion in expository writing
     8.Uses own words to develop ideas in expository writing
     9.Uses common expository structures
     10.Uses common expository features
     11.Uses a compare-contrast structure in expository writing
     12.Uses a problem-solution structure in expository writing
   Benchmark 7.Writes narrative accounts, such as short stories (e.g., engages the reader by establishing a context and otherwise developing reader interest; establishes a situation, plot, persona, point of view, setting, conflict, and resolution; develops complex characters; creates an organizational structure that uses appropriate pacing, transitions to sequence events, and balances and unifies all narrative aspects of the story; uses a range of strategies and literary devices such as dialogue, tension, suspense, figurative language, and specific narrative action such as movement, gestures, and expressions; reveals a specific theme)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Engages the reader in the story by establishing a context
     2.Develops the reader’s interest
     3.Establishes a situation in narrative writing
     4.Establishes a plot in narrative writing
     5.Establishes a persona in narrative writing
     6.Establishes a point of view in narrative writing
     7.Establishes a setting in narrative writing
     8.Establishes a conflict in narrative writing
     9.Establishes a resolution in narrative writing
     10.Develops complex characters in narrative writing
     11.Creates an organizational structure that balances the narrative aspects of the story
     12.Creates an organizational structure that unifies the narrative aspects of the story
     13.Uses dialogue in narrative writing appropriate to grades 6-8
     14.Uses tension in narrative writing appropriate to grades 6-8
     15.Uses suspense in narrative writing appropriate to grades 6-8
     16.Uses figurative language in narrative writing
     17.Uses specific narrative action in narrative writing
     18.Uses movement in narrative writing
     19.Uses gestures in narrative writing
     20.Uses expression in narrative writing
     21.Reveals a specific theme in narrative writing
     22.Creates an organizational structure that uses appropriate pacing
     23.Creates an organizational structure that uses transitions to sequence events
   Benchmark 10.Writes persuasive compositions (e.g., engages the reader by establishing a context, creating a persona, and otherwise developing reader interest; develops a controlling idea that conveys a judgment; creates and organizes a structure appropriate to the needs and interests of a specific audience; arranges details, reasons, examples, and/or anecdotes persuasively; excludes information and arguments that are irrelevant; anticipates and addresses reader concerns and counter arguments; supports arguments with detailed evidence, citing sources of information as appropriate)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Cites sources of information as appropriate
     2.Engages the reader on the topic by establishing a context
     3.Engages the reader by creating a persona
     4.Develops the reader’s interest
     5.Develops a controlling idea that conveys judgment
     6.Organizes a structure appropriate to the needs of the audience
     7.Organizes a structure appropriate to the interests of the audience
     8.Arranges details persuasively
     9.Arranges reasons persuasively
     10.Arranges examples persuasively
     11.Arranges anecdotes persuasively
     12.Excludes irrelevant information
     13.Excludes irrelevant arguments
     14.Anticipates reader concerns
     15.Anticipates reader counterarguments appropriate to grades 6-8
     16.Addresses reader concerns
     17.Addresses reader counterarguments
     18.Supports arguments with detailed evidence
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses a variety of strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., highlights individual voice; rethinks content, organization, and style; checks accuracy and depth of information; redrafts for readability and needs of readers; reviews writing to ensure that content and linguistic structures are consistent with purpose)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to 9-12
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to 9-12
     3.Highlights individual voice
     4.Rethinks content
     5.Rethinks organization
     6.Rethinks style
     7.Checks accuracy of information
     8.Checks depth of information
     9.Redrafts for readability
     10.Redrafts for the needs of readers
     11.Reviews writing to ensure content is consistent with purpose
     12.Reviews writing to ensure linguistic structures are consistent with purpose
   Benchmark 7.Writes expository compositions (e.g., synthesizes and organizes information from first- and second-hand sources, including books, magazines, computer data banks, and the community; uses a variety of techniques to develop the main idea [names, describes, or differentiates parts; compares or contrasts; uses cause-and-effect reasoning; examines the history of a subject; cites an anecdote to provide an example; illustrates through a scenario; provides interesting facts about the subject]; distinguishes relative importance of facts, data, and ideas; uses domain-specific vocabulary, such as appropriate technical terms and notations; provides concluding statement that articulates implications or significance of the topic)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Synthesizes information from first-hand sources
     2.Synthesizes information from second-hand sources
     3.Organizes information from first-hand sources
     4.Organizes information from second-hand sources
     5.Synthesizes information from books
     6.Synthesizes information from magazines
     7.Synthesizes information from computer data bank
     8.Synthesizes information from community
     9.Organizes information from books
     10.Organizes information from magazines
     11.Organizes information from computer data banks
     12.Organizes information from community
     13.Uses techniques to develop the main idea
     14.Names parts to develop main idea
     15.Describes parts to develop main idea
     16.Differentiates parts to develop main idea
     17.Compares to develop main idea
     18.Contrasts to develop main idea
     19.Uses cause-and-effect reasoning to develop main idea
     20.Examines the history of a subject to develop the main idea
     21.Cites anecdotes to provide an example
     22.Illustrates through scenario
     23.Provides interesting facts about subject
     24.Distinguishes relative importance of facts
     25.Distinguishes relative importance of data
     26.Distinguishes relative importance of ideas
     27.Uses domain-specific vocabulary
     28.Uses appropriate technical terms
     29.Uses appropriate notations
     30.Provides a concluding statement that articulates implications or significance of a topic
   Benchmark 13.Uses appropriate strategies (e.g., organizational pattern, format, language, tone) to write personal and business correspondence (e.g., informal letters, memos, job application letters, resumes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to write personal correspondence
     2.Uses strategies to write business correspondence
     3.Uses organizational patterns to write personal correspondence
     4.Uses format to write personal correspondence
     5.Uses appropriate language to write personal correspondence
     6.Uses appropriate tone to write personal correspondence
     7.Uses organizational pattern to write business correspondence
     8.Uses format to write business correspondence
     9.Uses appropriate language to write business correspondence
     10.Uses appropriate tone to write business correspondence
     11.Writes informal letters
     12.Writes memos
     13.Writes job application letters
     14.Writes resumes
 Standard 2.  Uses the stylistic and rhetorical aspects of writing
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Uses paragraph form in writing (e.g., indents the first word of a paragraph, uses topic sentences, recognizes a paragraph as a group of sentences about one main idea, uses an introductory and concluding paragraph, writes several related paragraphs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Writes several related paragraphs
     2.Indents the first word of a paragraph
     3.Uses topic sentences
     4.Recognizes a paragraph as a group of sentences about one main idea
     5.Uses an introductory paragraph
     6.Uses a concluding paragraph
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Uses paragraph form in writing (e.g., arranges sentences in sequential order, uses supporting and follow-up sentences, establishes coherence within and among paragraphs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Establishes coherence among paragraphs
     2.Arranges sentences in sequential order in a paragraph
     3.Uses supporting sentences in paragraph
     4.Uses follow-up sentences in paragraph
     5.Establishes coherence within paragraph
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Uses paragraph form in writing (e.g., arranges paragraphs into a logical progression, uses clincher or closing sentences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Arranges paragraphs into a logical progression
     2.Uses clincher sentences
     3.Uses closing sentences
   Benchmark 6.Organizes ideas to achieve cohesion in writing
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of cohesion in writing
 Standard 4.  Gathers and uses information for research purposes
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Uses a variety of strategies to plan research (e.g., identifies possible topic by brainstorming, listing questions, using idea webs; organizes prior knowledge about a topic; develops a course of action; determines how to locate necessary information)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Determines how to locate necessary information
     2.Identifies possible topics by brainstorming
     3.Identifies possible topics by listing questions
     4.Identifies possible topics by using idea webs
     5.Organizes prior knowledge about topic
     6.Develops a course of action
   Benchmark 7.Uses strategies to gather and record information for research topics (e.g., uses notes, maps, charts, graphs, tables, and other graphic organizers; paraphrases and summarizes information; gathers direct quotes; provides narrative descriptions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to gather information for research topics
     2.Uses strategies to record information for research topics
     3.Uses notes to record information appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Uses maps to record information
     5.Uses charts to record information
     6.Uses graphs to record information
     7.Uses tables to record information
     8.Uses graphic organizers to record information
     9.Paraphrases information
     10.Summarizes information
     11.Gathers direct quotes
     12.Provides narrative descriptions
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Organizes information and ideas from multiple sources in systematic ways (e.g., time lines, outlines, notes, graphic representations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses graphic representations to organize information and ideas
     2.Uses time lines to organize information and ideas from multiple sources
     3.Uses outlines to organize information and ideas from multiple sources
     4.Organizes notes from multiple sources in systematic ways
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Uses appropriate research methodology (e.g., formulates questions and refines topics, develops a plan for research; organizes what is known about a topic; uses appropriate research methods, such as questionnaires, experiments, field studies; collects information to narrow and develop a topic and support a thesis)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Collects information to develop a topic
     2.Formulates research questions
     3.Refines research topics
     4.Develops a plan for research
     5.Organizes what is known about the topic
     6.Uses appropriate research methods
     7.Uses questionnaires for research
     8.Uses experiments for research
     9.Uses field studies for research
     10.Collects information to narrow a topic
     11.Collects information to support a thesis
 Standard 8.  Uses listening and speaking strategies for different purposes
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 10.Organizes ideas for oral presentations (e.g., uses an introduction and conclusion; uses notes or other memory aids; organizes ideas around major points, in sequence, or chronologically; uses traditional structures, such as cause-and-effect, similarity and difference, posing and answering a question; uses details, examples, and anecdotes to clarify information)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses an introduction in oral presentations
     2.Uses a conclusion in oral presentations
     3.Uses notes for oral presentations appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Uses memory aids for oral presentations
     5.Organizes ideas around major points in a sequence in oral presentations
     6.Organizes ideas around major points chronologically in oral presentations
     7.Uses traditional structures to organize ideas in oral presentations
     8.Uses cause-and-effect structures to organize ideas in oral presentations
     9.Uses similarity to organize ideas in oral presentations
     10.Uses differences to organize ideas in oral presentations
     11.Poses and answers questions as a method of organizing ideas in oral presentations
     12.Uses details to clarify ideas in oral presentations
     14.Uses examples to clarify ideas in oral presentations
     15.Uses anecdotes to clarify information in oral presentations
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Uses strategies to enhance listening comprehension (e.g., takes notes; organizes, summarizes, and paraphrases spoken ideas and details)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Takes notes to enhance listening comprehension
     2.Organizes spoken ideas to enhance listening comprehension
     3.Summarizes spoken ideas to enhance listening comprehension
     4.Paraphrases spoken ideas to enhance listening comprehension
     5.Organizes spoken details to enhance listening comprehension
     6.Summarizes spoken details to enhance listening comprehension
     7.Paraphrases spoken details to enhance listening comprehension
   Benchmark 6.Makes oral presentations to the class (e.g., uses notes and outlines; uses organizational pattern that includes preview, introduction, body, transitions, conclusion; uses a clear point of view; uses evidence and arguments to support opinions; uses visual media)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses notes for oral presentations appropriate to grades 6-8
     2.Uses outlines for oral presentations
     3.Uses organizational pattern that includes a preview in oral presentations
     4.Uses organizational pattern that includes an introduction in oral presentations
     5.Uses organizational pattern that includes a body in oral presentations
     6.Uses organizational pattern that includes transitions in oral presentations
     7.Uses organizational pattern that includes a conclusion in oral presentations
     8.Uses a clear point of view in oral presentations
     9.Uses evidence to support opinions in oral presentations
     10.Uses arguments to support opinions in oral presentations
     11.Uses visual media in oral presentations appropriate to grades 6-8
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Uses a variety of strategies to enhance listening comprehension (e.g., focuses attention on message, monitors message for clarity and understanding, asks relevant questions, provides verbal and nonverbal feedback,notes cues such as change of pace or particular words that indicate a new point is about to be made; uses abbreviation system to record information quickly; selects and organizes essential information; summarizes points of agreement and disagreement in discussion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Focuses attention on message
     2.Monitors message for clarity
     3.Monitors message for understanding
     4.Asks relevant questions
     5.Provides verbal feedback
     6.Provides nonverbal feedback
     7.Notes cues as change of pace
     8.Notes cues as particular words that indicated new point
     9.Uses abbreviation system to record information
     10.Selects essential information
     11.Organizes essential information
     12.Summarizes points of agreement in discussion
     13.Summarizes points of disagreement in discussion
   Benchmark 6.Makes multimedia presentations using text, images, and sound (e.g., selects the appropriate medium, such as television broadcast, videos, web pages, films, newspapers, magazines, CD-ROMS, Internet, computer-media-generated images ; edits and monitors for quality; organizes, writes, and designs media messages for specific purposes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Makes multimedia presentations using text
     2.Makes multimedia presentations using images
     3.Makes multimedia presentations using sound
     4.Selects appropriate medium
     5.Selects television broadcasts for specific purposes
     6.Selects videos for specific purposes
     7.Selects Web pages for specific purposes
     8.Selects films for specific purposes
     9.Selects newspapers for specific purposes
     10.Selects magazines for specific purposes
     11.Selects CD-ROMS for specific purposes
     12.Selects Internet for specific purposes
     13.Selects computer-media-generated images for specific purposes
     14.Edits multimedia presentations for quality
     15.Monitors multimedia presentations for quality
     16.Organizes media messages for specific purposes
     17.Writes media messages for specific purposes
     18.Designs media messages for specific purposes
   Benchmark 8.Responds to questions and feedback about contributions to discussions and formal presentations (e.g., clarifies and defends ideas, expands on a topic, uses logical arguments, modifies organization, sets goals for future presentations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Responds to questions about formal presentations
     2.Responds to feedback about formal presentations
     3.Responds to questions about contributions to discussions
     4.Responds to feedback about contributions to discussions
     5.Clarifies ideas
     6.Defends ideas
     7.Expands on topic
     8.Uses logical arguments
     9.Modifies organization

Engineering Education

 Standard 14.  Uses the design process to solve problems
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Uses a variety of verbal and graphic techniques to present conclusions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses a variety of verbal techniques to present conclusions
     2.Uses a variety of graphic techniques to present conclusions