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Topic: Forces and motion 

Science

 Standard 10.  Understands forces and motion
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 1. Knows the effects of forces (e.g., wind, gravity) in nature
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the effects of gravity in nature
     2.Knows the effects of wind in nature
   Benchmark 2.Knows that objects can be moved in space in a number of ways (e.g., pushing, pulling, sinking)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that objects can be moved in space
     2.Knows that objects can be moved by pushing them
     3.Knows that objects can be moved by pulling them
     4.Knows that objects can be moved by sinking them
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 4.Knows that the position and motion of an object can be changed by pushing or pulling
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the position of an object can be changed by pushing
     2.Knows that the motion of an object can be changed by pushing
     3.Knows that the position of an object can be changed by pulling
     4.Knows that the motion of an object can be changed by pulling
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 5.Knows that when a force is applied to an object, the object either speeds up, slows down, or goes in a different direction
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that when force is applied to an object, the object might speed up
     2.Knows that when force is applied to an object, the object might slow down
     3.Knows that when force is applied to an object, the object might go in a different direction
   Benchmark 6.Knows the relationship between the strength of a force and its effect on an object (e.g., the greater the force, the greater the change in motion; the more massive the object, the smaller the effect of a given force)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the more massive an object, the smaller the effect of a given force
     2.Knows the greater the force, the greater the change in motion
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on an object’s motion (e.g., if more than one force acts on an object along a straight line, then the forces will reinforce or cancel one another, depending on their direction and magnitude; unbalanced forces, such as friction, will cause changes in the speed or direction on an object’s motion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of balanced forces on an object’s motion
     2.Understands the effects of unbalanced forces on an object’s motion
     3.Understands that if more than one force acts on an object along a straight line, they will reinforce or cancel one another depending on their direction and magnitude
     4.Understands friction as an unbalanced force that can cause changes in the speed of an object’s motion
     5.Understands friction as unbalanced force that can cause changes in the direction of an object’s motion
   Benchmark 5.Knows that an object that is not being subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed and in a straight line
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that an object not being subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed
     2.Knows that an object not being subjected to a force will continue to move in a straight line
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Knows that laws of motion can be used to determine the effects of forces on the motion of objects (e.g., objects change their motion only when a net force is applied; whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted on the first object; the magnitude of the change in motion can be calculated using the relationship F=ma, which is independent of the nature of the force)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that F=ma is independent of the nature of the force
     2.Knows that objects change motion only when a net force is applied
     3.Knows that when one object exerts force on another, a force of equal magnitude is exerted on the first object
     4.Knows that when one object exerts force on another, a force opposite in direction is exerted on first object
     5.Knows that the magnitude of the change in motion can be calculated by using F=ma