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Topic: Atoms and molecules 

Science

 Standard 8.  Understands the structure and properties of matter
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms, and different arrangements of atoms into groups compose all substances
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that matter is made up of atoms
     2.Knows that atoms are tiny particles
     3.Knows that different arrangements of atoms into groups compose all substances
   Benchmark 2.Knows that elements often combine to form compounds (e.g., molecules, crystals)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows atoms can combine to form a molecule
     2.Knows that atoms can combine to form a crystal
     3.Knows that elements combine to form compounds
   Benchmark 3.Knows that states of matter depend on molecular arrangement and motion (e.g., molecules in solids are packed tightly together and their movement is restricted to vibrations; molecules in liquids are loosely packed and move easily past each other; molecules in gases are quite far apart and move about freely)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that states of matter depend on molecular arrangement
     2.Knows that states of matter depend on molecular motion
     3.Knows that the molecules in solids are packed tightly together
     4.Knows that the movement of molecules in solids is restricted to vibrations
     5.Knows that the molecules in liquids are loosely packed
     6.Knows that the molecules in liquids move easily past each other
     7.Knows that the molecules in gases are far apart
     8.Knows that the molecules in gases move about freely
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how the electron configuration of atoms governs the chemical properties of an element as atoms interact with one another by transferring or sharing the outermost electrons
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the electron configuration of an atom governs the chemical properties of that element
     2.Knows that atoms interact by transferring or sharing their outermost electrons
   Benchmark 4.Knows that atoms may be bonded together into molecules or crystalline solids, and compounds are formed from chemical bonds between two or more different kinds of atoms
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that atoms may be bonded together into molecules
     2.Knows that atoms may be bonded together into crystalline solids
     3.Knows that compounds form from chemical bonds between two or more different atoms
   Benchmark 5.Knows that the physical properties of a compound are determined by its molecular structure (e.g., constituent atoms, distances and angles between them) and the interactions among these molecules
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that molecular structure determines the physical properties of a compound
     2.Knows that the molecular structure of a compound includes constituent atoms
     3.Knows that the molecular structure of a compound includes the distance between constituent atoms
     4.Knows that the molecular structure of a compound includes the angles between constituent atoms
     5.Knows that the interactions among molecules determines the physical properties of a compound
   Benchmark 13.Understands the complete mole concept and ways in which it can be used (e.g., actual mass vs. relative mass; relationship between the mole and the volume of a mole of molecules; relevance of molar volume and Avogadro’s hypothesis)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the complete mole concept
     2.Understands ways the mole concept can be used
     3.Understands actual mass vs. relative mass
     4.Understands the relationship between the mole and the volume of a mole of molecules
     5.Understands the relevance of molar volume
     6.Understands the relevance of Avogadro’s hypothesis
   Benchmark 14.Knows the variety of structures that may be formed from the bonding of carbon atoms (e.g., synthetic polymers, oils, the large molecules essential to life) and their roles in various chemical reactions, including those required for life processes
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows structures that are formed from the bonding of carbon atoms
     2.Knows that synthetic polymers form from bonding carbon atoms
     3.Knows that oils form from bonding carbon atoms
     4.Knows that large molecules essential to life form from bonding carbon atoms
     5.Knows the roles that structures formed from carbon atoms play in chemical reactions
     6.Knows the roles that structures formed from carbon atoms play in chemical reactions required for life
 Standard 9.  Understands the sources and properties of energy
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the relationship between heat and temperature (heat energy consists of the random motion and vibrations of atoms, molecules, and ions; the higher the temperature, the greater the atomic or molecular motion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that a higher temperature indicates greater molecular motion
     2.Understands that heat energy partly consists of the random motion of atoms
     3.Understands that heat energy partly consists of the random motion of molecules
     4.Understands that heat energy partly consists of the random motion of ions
     5.Understands that heat energy partly consists of the vibration of atoms
     6.Understands that heat energy partly consists of the vibrations of molecules
     7.Understands that heat energy partly consists of the vibrations of ions
     8.Understands that a higher temperature indicates greater atomic motion
   Benchmark 4.Knows how the energy associated with individual atoms and molecules can be used to identify the substances they comprise; each kind of atom or molecule can gain or lose energy only in particular discrete amounts, and thus can absorb and emit light only at wavelengths corresponding to these amounts
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the energy of individual atoms can be used to identify the substances they comprise
     2.Knows how the energy of individual molecules can be used to identify the substances they comprise
     3.Knows that each kind of atom can gain energy only in particular discrete amounts
     4.Knows that each kind of atom can lose energy only in particular discrete amounts
     5.Knows that each kind of atom can absorb light at wavelengths corresponding to the amount of energy gained or lost
     6.Knows that each kind of atom can emit light at wavelengths corresponding to the amount of energy gained or lost
     7.Knows that each kind of molecule can gain energy only in particular discrete amounts
     8.Knows that each kind of molecule can lose energy only in particular discrete amounts
     9.Knows that each kind of molecule can absorb light at wavelengths corresponding to the amount of energy gained or lost
     10.Knows that each kind of molecule can emit light at wavelengths corresponding to the amount of energy gained or lost
 Standard 10.  Understands forces and motion
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Knows that electromagnetic forces exist within and between atoms (e.g., electric forces between oppositely charged electrons and protons hold atoms and molecules together, and are involved in all chemical reactions; electric forces hold solid and liquid materials together and act between objects when they are in contact)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that electromagnetic forces exist within atoms
     2.Knows that electromagnetic forces exist between atoms
     3.Knows that electric forces between oppositely charged electrons and protons hold molecules together
     4.Knows that electric forces between oppositely charged electrons and protons hold atoms together
     5.Knows that electric forces are involved in all chemical reactions
     6.Knows that electric forces hold solid materials together
     7.Knows that electric forces hold liquid materials together

Engineering Education

 Standard 1.  Understands scientific principles related to electricity
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the characteristics of elements, mixtures, and compounds that are explained by the electron theory
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands basic electron theory
     2.Knows the relationship among electrons, protons, and neutrons within elements
     3.Knows the characteristics of mixtures that are explained by electron theory
     4.Knows the characteristics of compounds that are explained by electron theory