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List of Benchmarks for Geography

Standard 9.Understands the nature, distribution and migration of human populations on Earth's surface
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Understands the characteristics of populations at a variety of scales (e.g., ethnicity, age distribution, number of families and single households, number of employed and unemployed, males and females, life expectancy, infant mortality)
   2. Knows the spatial distribution of population (e.g., that population density is higher east of the Mississippi River than west of it, population density is higher on the East Coast and West Coast than in the mountains and deserts of the western part of the country, few people live where it is very dry or very cold)
   3. Understands voluntary and involuntary migration
   4. Knows the causes and effects of human migration (e.g., European colonists and African slaves to America, movement of people from drought areas in Africa, movement of people from East Asia to North America, effects of physical geography on national and international migration, cultural factors)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands demographic concepts and how they are used to describe population characteristics of a country or region (e.g., rates of natural increase, crude birth and death rates, infant mortality, population growth rates, doubling time, life expectancy, average family size)  A 
   2. Knows the factors that influence patterns of rural-urban migration (e.g., urban commuting, effects of technology on transportation, communication and people's mobility, barriers that impede the flow of people, goods, and ideas)
   3. Knows the ways in which human movement and migration influence the character of a place (e.g., New Delhi before and after the partition of the Indian subcontinent in the 1940s and the massive realignment of the Hindu and Muslim populations; Boston before and after the large-scale influx of Irish immigrants in the mid-nineteenth century; the impact of Indians settling in South Africa, Algerians settling in France, Vietnamese settling in the United States)  A 
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands population issues (e.g., the ongoing policies to limit population growth, the policy in the former Soviet Union to encourage ethnic Russians to have large families, economic considerations such as a country's need for more or fewer workers)
   2. Knows how human mobility and city/region interdependence can be increased and regional integration can be facilitated by improved transportation systems (e.g., the national interstate highway system in the United States, the network of global air routes)
   3. Knows how international migrations are shaped by push and pull factors (e.g., political conditions, economic incentives, religious values, family ties)
   4. Understands the impact of human migration on physical and human systems (e.g., the impact of European settlers on the High Plains of North America in the nineteenth century, impact of rural-to-urban migration on suburban development and the resulting lack of adequate housing and stress on infrastructure, effects of population gains or losses on socioeconomic conditions)

 A  = Assessment items available