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Standard 5.Understands the concept of regions
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows areas that can be classified as regions according to physical criteria (e.g., land form regions, soil regions, vegetation regions, climate regions, water basins) and human criteria (e.g., political regions, population regions, economic regions, language regions)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows the characteristics of a variety of regions (e.g., land form, climate, vegetation, shopping, housing, manufacturing, religion, language)  A 
   2. Understands how regions change over time and the consequences of these changes (e.g., changes in population size or ethnic composition; construction of a new shopping center, a regional hospital, or a new manufacturing plant; changes in transportation; changes in environmental conditions)
   3. Knows how regions are similar and different in form and function (e.g., local neighborhoods versus Central Business District)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows regions at various spatial scales (e.g., hemispheres, regions within continents, countries, cities)
   2. Understands criteria that give a region identity (e.g., its central focus, such as Amsterdam as a transportation center; relationships between physical and cultural characteristics, such as the Sunbelt's warm climate and popularity with retired people)
   3. Knows types of regions such as formal regions (e.g., school districts, circuit-court districts, states of the United States), functional regions (e.g., the marketing area of a local newspaper, the "fanshed" of a professional sports team), and perceptual regions (e.g., the Bible Belt in the United States, the Riviera in southern France, the Great American Desert)
   4. Knows factors that contribute to changing regional characteristics (e.g., economic development, accessibility, migration, media image)
   5. Understands the influences and effects of particular regional labels and images (e.g., Twin Peaks in San Francisco, Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., the South, the rust belt, "developed" vs. "less-developed" regions)
   6. Understands ways regional systems are interconnected (e.g., watersheds and river systems, regional connections through trade, cultural ties between regions)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how regional boundaries change (e.g., changes resulting from shifts in population, environmental degradation, shifts in production and market patterns, wars)
   2. Knows factors that contribute to the dynamic nature of regions (e.g., human influences such as migration, technology, and capital investment; physical influences such as long-term climate shifts and seismic activity)
   3. Understands connections within and among the parts of a regional system (e.g., links involving neighborhoods within a city, municipalities within a metropolitan area, or power blocs within a defense or economic alliance)
   4. Understands how changing conditions can result in the redefinition of a region (e.g., the reshaping of South Africa resulting from the economic and political realignments that followed the end of European colonialism, the Caribbean Basin's transition from a major sugarcane and hemp producer to a center for tourism)
   5. Knows ways in which the concept of a region can be used to simplify the complexity of Earth’s space (e.g., by arranging an area into sections to help understand a particular topic or problem)
   6. Understands the different ways in which regional systems are structured (e.g., precinct, ward, county, state, and national levels of a political party hierarchy; hub-and-spoke airline operations; postal-service zip codes; assignment of Social Security numbers by region)

 A  = Assessment items available