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List of Benchmarks for Geography

Standard 4.Understands the physical and human characteristics of place
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Knows common features (e.g., street signs, roads, buildings) found in the local environment
   2. Knows natural features of the environment (e.g., hills, mountains, oceans, rivers)
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows the physical and human characteristics of the local community (e.g., neighborhoods, schools, parks, creeks, shopping areas, airports, museums, sports stadiums, hospitals)
   2. Knows that places can be defined in terms of their predominant human and physical characteristics (e.g., rural, urban, forest, desert; or by types of land forms, vegetation, water bodies, climate)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows how the characteristics of places are shaped by physical and human processes (e.g., effects of agriculture on changing land use and vegetation; effects of settlement on the building of roads; relationship of population distribution to land forms, climate, vegetation, or resources)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows the human characteristics of places (e.g., cultural characteristics such as religion, language, politics, technology, family structure, gender; population characteristics; land uses; levels of development)  A 
   2. Knows the physical characteristics of places (e.g., soils, land forms, vegetation, wildlife, climate, natural hazards)
   3. Knows how technology shapes the human and physical characteristics of places (e.g., satellite dishes, computers, road construction)
   4. Knows the causes and effects of changes in a place over time (e.g., physical changes such as forest cover, water distribution, temperature fluctuations; human changes such as urban growth, the clearing of forests, development of transportation systems)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Knows how social, cultural, and economic processes shape the features of places (e.g., resource use, belief systems, modes of transportation and communication; major technological changes such as the agricultural and industrial revolutions; population growth and urbanization)
   2. Understands why places have specific physical and human characteristics in different parts of the world (e.g., the effects of climatic and tectonic processes, settlement and migration patterns, site and situation components)
   3. Knows the locational advantages and disadvantages of using places for different activities based on their physical characteristics (e.g., flood plain, forest, tundra, earthquake zone, river crossing, coastal flood zone)

 A  = Assessment items available