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Geography

Standard 3.Understands the characteristics and uses of spatial organization of Earth's surface
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Identifies physical and human features in terms of the four spatial elements (e.g., locations [point], transportation and communication routes [line], regions [area], lakes filled with water [volume])
   2. Knows the absolute and relative location of a community and places within it (e.g., parks, stores, landmarks)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows patterns on the landscape produced by physical processes (e.g., the drainage basin of a river system, the ridge-and-valley pattern of the Appalachians, vegetation on the windward and leeward sides of a mountain range)
   2. Understands the spatial organization of places through such concepts as location, distance, direction, scale, movement, and region   A 
   3. Understands how changing transportation and communication technology have affected relationships between locations
   4. Knows different methods used to measure distance (e.g., miles, kilometers, time, cost, perception)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands distributions of physical and human occurrences with respect to spatial patterns, arrangements, and associations (e.g., why some areas are more densely settled than others, relationships and patterns in the kind and number of links between settlements)
   2. Understands patterns of land use in urban, suburban, and rural areas (e.g., land uses that are frequently nearby and others not frequently adjacent to one another, dominant land-use patterns in city centers and peripheral areas)  A 
   3. Understands how places are connected and how these connections demonstrate interdependence and accessibility (e.g., the role of changing transportation and communication technology, regions and countries Americans depend on for imported resources and manufactured goods)  A 
   4. Understands the patterns and processes of migration and diffusion (e.g., the spread of language, religion, and customs from one culture to another; spread of a contagious disease through a population; global migration patterns of plants and animals)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how concepts of spatial interaction (e.g., complementarity, intervening opportunity, distance decay, connections) account for patterns of movement in space (e.g., transportation routes, trade and migration patterns, commodity flows)  A 
   2. Understands relationships in and between places (e.g., differences in threshold population or demand needed to support retail activities in a place, why there are many small central places and few large central places, law of retail gravitation)
   3. Understands how characteristics such as age, sex, employment, and income level affect the way people perceive and use space (e.g., school-age children traveling to and from school, employed people commuting by public transit, high-income people traveling long distances for vacations)
   4. Understands principles of location (e.g., optimum plant-location decisions based on labor costs, transportation costs, market locations, climate; advantages for retailers to locate in malls rather than in dispersed locations)
    

 A  = Assessment items available