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List of Benchmarks for Geography

Standard 18.Understands global development and environmental issues
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows the relationship between population growth and resource use
   2. Knows the ways in which resources can be managed and why it is important to do so (e.g., soil conservation practices, recycling nonrenewable resources)
   3. Knows how differences in perception affect people's interpretations of the world (e.g., how different groups of people perceive the same place, environment, or event; how children raised in different societies have different views regarding personal life, education, and aspirations)
   4. Knows human-induced changes that are taking place in different regions and the possible future impacts of these changes (e.g., development and conservation issues in terms of the wetland of coastal New Jersey)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands how the interaction between physical and human systems affects current conditions on Earth (e.g., relationships involved in economic, political, social, and environmental changes; geographic impact of using petroleum, coal, nuclear power, and solar power as major energy sources)
   2. Understands the possible impact that present conditions and patterns of consumption, production and population growth might have on the future spatial organization of Earth
   3. Knows how the quality of environments in large cities can be improved (e.g., greenways, transportation corridors, pedestrian walkways, bicycle lanes)
   4. Understands why different points of view exist regarding contemporary geographic issues (e.g., a forester and a conservationist debating the use of a national forest, a man and a woman discussing gender-based divisions of labor in a developing nation)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the concept of sustainable development and its effects in a variety of situations (e.g., toward cutting the rain forests in Indonesia in response to a demand for lumber in foreign markets, or mining the rutile sands along the coast of eastern Australia near the Great Barrier Reef)
   2. Understands why policies should be designed to guide the use and management of Earth's resources and to reflect multiple points of view (e.g., the inequities of access to resources, political and economic power in developing countries, the impact of a natural disaster on a developed country vs. a developing country)
   3. Understands contemporary issues in terms of Earth's physical and human systems (e.g., the processes of land degradation and desertification, the consequences of population growth or decline in a developed economy, the consequences of a world temperature increase)