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List of Benchmarks for Geography

Standard 17.Understands how geography is used to interpret the past
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows how areas of a community have changed over time (in terms of, e.g., size and style of homes; how people earn their living; changes in the plant and animal population)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows the factors that have contributed to changing land use in a community (e.g., street and road development, population shifts, regulations governing land use)
   2. Knows the ways in which changes in people's perceptions of environments have influenced human migration and settlement over time (e.g., the history of oil discovery and its effect on migration in different United States regions such as Pennsylvania, Louisiana, or Texas)
   3. Knows the geographic factors that have influenced people and events in the past (e.g., the effects of the site of a Civil War battle on the course of the conflict, how trade routes followed by early European colonists were linked to the trade winds, how Muslim trading vessels used monsoon winds to cross the Indian Ocean in the 8th century)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows how physical and human geographic factors have influenced major historic events and movements (e.g., the course and outcome of battles and wars, the forced transport of Africans to North and South America because of the need for cheap labor, the profitability of the triangle trade and the locations of prevailing wind and ocean currents, the effects of different land-survey systems used in the U.S.)
   2. Knows historic and current conflicts and competition regarding the use and allocation of resources (e.g., the conflicts between Native Americans and colonists; conflicts between the Inuit and migrants to Alaska since 1950)  A 
   3. Knows the ways in which the spatial organization of society changes over time (e.g., process of urban growth in the United States; changes in the internal structure, form, and function of urban areas in different regions of the world at different times)
   4. Knows significant physical features that have influenced historical events (e.g., mountain passes that have affected military campaigns such as the Khyber Pass, Burma Pass, or Brenner Pass; major water crossings that have affected U.S. history such as the Tacoma Strait in Washington or the Delaware River near Trenton, New Jersey; major water gaps, springs, and other hydrologic features that have affected settlement in the U.S. such as the Cumberland Gap, the Ogallala Aquifer, or the artesian wells of the Great Plains)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how the processes of spatial change have affected history (e.g., the diffusion of a phenomenon through regions of contact, such as the spread of bubonic plague, or the diffusion of tobacco smoking from North America to Europe, Africa, and Asia; the development of the national transportation systems in the U.S.; effects of migration streams and counterstreams)
   2. Understands how people's changing perceptions of geographic features have led to changes in human societies (e.g., the effects of religion on world economic development patterns, cultural conflict, social integration, resource use; the effects of technology on human control over nature, such as large-scale agriculture in Ukraine and northern China, strip-mining in Russia, and center-pivot irrigation in the southwestern United States)
   3. Understands the ways in which physical and human features have influenced the evolution of significant historic events and movements (e.g., the effects of imperialism, colonization, and decolonization on the economic and political developments of the 19th and 20th centuries; the geographical forces responsible for the industrial revolution in England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries; physical and human factors that have led to famines and large-scale refugee movements)

 A  = Assessment items available