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List of Benchmarks for Geography

Standard 16.Understands the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution and importance of resources
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows the role that resources play in our daily lives (resources used to generate electricity; resources used to produce automobiles, medicines, clothing, and food)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows the characteristics, location, and use of renewable resources (e.g., timber), flow resources (e.g., running water or wind), and nonrenewable resources (e.g., fossil fuels, minerals)
   2. Knows how settlement patterns are influenced by the discovery and use of resources (e.g., Colorado mining towns as centers of settlement in the late 19th century, the growth of industry and cities along the fall line of the Appalachians starting in the 18th century)
   3. Knows the relationships between economic activities and resources (e.g., the relationship of major industrial districts to the location of iron ore, coal, and other resources)
   4. Knows the major transportation routes that link resources with consumers and the transportation modes used (e.g., ships, pipelines, barges, railroads)
   5. Knows advantages and disadvantages of recycling and reusing different types of materials
   6. Knows the different ways in which resources are used and valued in different regions of the world (e.g., the use of wood in the United States for construction compared to the use of wood in the Dominican Republic for fuel)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands the reasons for conflicting viewpoints regarding how resources should be used (e.g., attitudes toward electric cars, water-rationing, urban public transportation, use of fossil fuels, excessive timber cutting in old growth forests, buffalo in the western United States, soil conservation in semiarid areas)
   2. Knows strategies for wise management and use of renewable, flow, and nonrenewable resources (e.g., wise management of agricultural soils, fossil fuels, and alternative energy sources; community programs for recycling or reusing materials)  A 
   3. Knows world patterns of resource distribution and utilization (e.g., petroleum, coal, iron ore, diamonds, silver, gold, molybdenum)  A 
   4. Understands the consequences of the use of resources in the contemporary world (e.g., the relationship between a country's standard of living and its accessibility to resources, the competition for resources demonstrated by events such as the Japanese occupation of Manchuria in the 1930s or the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1991)
   5. Understands the role of technology in resource acquisition and use, and its impact on the environment (e.g., the use of giant earth-moving machinery in strip-mining, the use of satellite imagery technology in the search for petroleum, rates of resource consumption among countries of high or low levels of technological development)
   6. Understands how energy resources contribute to the development and functioning of human societies (e.g., by providing power for transportation, manufacturing, the heating and cooling of buildings)
   7. Understands how the development and widespread use of alternative energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, thermal) might have an impact on societies (in terms of, e.g., air and water quality, existing energy industries, and current manufacturing practices)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the relationships between resources and exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world (e.g., the development of mercantilism and imperialism and the consequent settlement of Latin America and other regions of the world by the Spanish and Portuguese; the abundance of fur, fish, timber, and gold in Siberia, Alaska, and California and the settlement of these areas by the Russians)
   2. Understands programs and positions related to the use of resources on a local to global scale (e.g., community regulations for water usage during drought periods; local recycling programs for glass, metal, plastic, and paper products; different points of view regarding uses of the Malaysian rain forests)
   3. Understands the impact of policy decisions regarding the use of resources in different regions of the world (e.g., the long-term impact on the economy of Nauru when its phosphate reserves are exhausted, the economic and social problems related to the overcutting of pine forests in Nova Scotia, the impact of petroleum consumption in the United States and Japan)
   4. Knows issues related to the reuse and recycling of resources (e.g., changing relocation strategies of industries seeking access to recyclable material, such as paper factories, container and can companies, glass, plastic, and bottle manufacturers; issues involved with the movement, handling, processing, and storing of toxic and hazardous waste materials; fully enforced vs. consistently neglected approaches to resource management)

 A  = Assessment items available