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List of Benchmarks for Geography

Standard 13.Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows ways that people solve common problems by cooperating (e.g., working in groups to pick up trash along a road, participating in a neighborhood crime-watch group, participating in community house-building projects)
   2. Knows examples of world conflict or cooperation (e.g., countries in trade pacts, areas of the world with refugee problems)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows the functions of political units (e.g., law-making, law enforcement, provision of services, powers of taxation) and how they differ on the basis of scale (e.g., precinct, census district, school attendance zone, township, metropolitan area, county, state, nation)
   2. Knows how and why people divide Earth's surface into political and/or economic units (e.g., states in the United States and Mexico; provinces in Canada; countries in North and South America; countries linked in cooperative relationships, such as the European Union)
   3. Knows how and why people compete for control of Earth's surface (e.g., ethnic or national differences, desire for political control, economic inequalities)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands factors that contribute to cooperation (e.g., similarities in religion, language, political beliefs) or conflict (e.g., economic competition for scarce resources, boundary disputes, cultural differences, control of strategic locations) within and between regions and countries   A 
   2. Knows the social, political, and economic divisions on Earth's surface at the local, state, national, and international levels (e.g., transnational corporations, political alliances, economic groupings, world religions)
   3. Understands the various factors involved in the development of nation-states (e.g., competition for territory and resources, desire for self-rule, nationalism, history of domination by powerful countries)
   4. Understands the reasons for multiple and overlapping spatial divisions in society (e.g., postal zones, school districts, telephone area codes, voting wards)
   5. Understands the factors that affect the cohesiveness and integration of countries (e.g., language and religion in Belgium, the religious differences between Hindus and Muslims in India, the ethnic differences in some African countries that have been independent for only a few decades, the elongated shapes of Italy and Chile)
   6. Understands the symbolic importance of capital cities (e.g., Canberra, a planned city, as the capital of Australia; The Hague as both a national capital of the Netherlands and a center for such global agencies as the World Court)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how cooperation and/or conflict can lead to the allocation of control of Earth's surface (e.g., formation and delineation of regional planning districts, regional school districts, countries, free-trade zones)
   2. Knows the causes of boundary conflicts and internal disputes between culture groups (e.g., the conflict between North Korea and South Korea, friction between the Spanish majority and Basque minority in Spain, the civil war between the Hutus and the Tutsis in Rwanda)
   3. Understands why the boundaries of congressional districts change in the United States (e.g., the effects of statutory requirements, population shifts, ethnic and racial considerations, shifts in political power)
   4. Understands the changes that occur in the extent and organization of social, political, and economic entities on Earth's surface (e.g., imperial powers such as the Roman Empire, Han Dynasty, Carolingian Empire, British Empire)
   5. Understands why some countries are land-locked (e.g., wars between rival countries, isolation due to the size of landmasses and due to racial and cultural divisions)
   6. Understands how external forces can conflict economically and politically with internal interests in a region (e.g., how the Pampas in Argentina underwent a significant socioeconomic transformation in the 19th and early 20th centuries as a consequence of European demands for grain and beef; the consequences of the French colonization of IndoChina in the 19th century to procure tin, tungsten, and rubber; the friction between Hindus and Muslims in the Indian subcontinent in the 1940s which led to the formation of India and Pakistan)

 A  = Assessment items available