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List of Benchmarks for Geography

Standard 12.Understands the patterns of human settlement and their causes
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Understands why people choose to settle in different places (e.g., job opportunities, available land, climate)
   2. Knows the similarities and differences in housing and land use in urban and suburban areas (e.g., where people live, where services are provided, where products are made, types of housing, yard size, population density, transportation facilities, presence of infrastructure elements such as sidewalks and street lights)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows areas of dense human settlement and why they are densely populated (e.g., fertile soil, good transportation, and availability of water in the Ganges River Valley; availability of coal, iron, and other natural resources and river transportation in the Ruhr)  A 
   2. Knows reasons for similarities and differences in the population size and density of different regions (e.g., length of settlement, environment and resources, cultural traditions, historic events, accessibility)
   3. Knows the settlement patterns that characterize the development of a community or state (e.g., from the movement of people into an area previously unoccupied to the competition among villages for economic dominance and growth; from a small number of dispersed settlers with few services to the modern pattern of suburbanization and decentralization)  A 
   4. Knows reasons for the growth and decline of settlements (e.g., boomtowns to ghost towns in mining areas, the rise or decline of towns linked or not linked by highways or railroads, the history of company or single-industry towns in periods of prosperity or recession)
   5. Knows the characteristics and locations of cities (e.g., location along transportation routes, availability of resources, continued access to other cities and resources) and how cities have changed over time (e.g., the movement of industry from downtown to the edge of cities, suburban growth, changes in the shapes of urban areas)  A 
   6. Knows similarities and differences among the world's culture hearths (culture groups' places of origin), why humans settled in those places and why these settlements persist today (e.g., as centers of innovation and cultural, social, economic, and political development that attract people from other places)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows the causes and consequences of urbanization (e.g., industrial development; cultural activities such as entertainment, religious facilities, higher education; economic attractions such as business and entrepreneurial opportunities; access to information and other resources)  A 
   2. Knows the similarities and differences in various settlement patterns of the world (e.g., agricultural settlement types such as plantations, subsistence farming, truck-farming communities; urban settlement types such as port cities, governmental centers, single-industry cities, planned cities)  A 
   3. Knows ways in which both the landscape and society change as a consequence of shifting from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form (e.g., a larger marketplace, the need for an agricultural surplus to provide for the urban population, the loss of some rural workers as people decide to move into the city, changes in the transportation system)
   4. Knows the factors involved in the development of cities (e.g., geographic factors for location such as transportation and food supply; the need for a marketplace, religious needs, or for military protection)
   5. Knows the internal spatial structures of cities (e.g., the concentric zone model and the sector model of cities; the impact of different transportation systems on the spatial arrangement of business, industry, and residence in a city)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how the functions of cities today differ from those of towns and villages and cities in earlier times (e.g., more specialized economic and social activities, greater concentration of services, greater availability of the same services)
   2. Knows the shape of cities in the United States and factors that influence urban morphology (e.g., transportation routes, physical barriers, zoning regulations)
   3. Knows the similarities and differences in settlement characteristics of economically developing and developed nations (characteristics of cities; residential and transportation patterns; travel distance to schools, shopping areas, and health care facilities)
   4. Knows the consequences of factors such as population changes or the arrival/departure of a major industry or business on the settlement patterns of an area (e.g., stress on infrastructure, problems of public safety and fire protection, crisis in delivering school and medical services)
   5. Understands the physical and human impact of emerging urban forms in the present-day world (e.g., the rise of megalopoli, edge cities, and metropolitan corridors; increasing numbers of ethnic enclaves in urban areas and the development of legislation to protect the rights of ethnic and racial minorities; improved light-rail systems within cities providing ease of access to ex-urban areas)

 A  = Assessment items available