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List of Benchmarks for Geography

Standard 11.Understands the patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows the modes of transportation used to move people, products and ideas from place to place (e.g., barges, airplanes, automobiles, pipelines, ships, railroads), their importance and their advantages and disadvantages
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows the factors that are important in the location of economic activities (e.g., warehouses and industries near major transportation routes, fast-food restaurants in highly accessible locations close to population concentrations, production sites near the sources of their raw materials or close to the consumers who buy their products)
   2. Knows economic activities that use natural resources in the local region, state, and nation (e.g., agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry) and the importance of the activities to these areas   A 
   3. Knows how transportation and communication have changed and how they have affected trade and economic activities (e.g., regions can specialize economically; with improved roads and refrigerated trucking, more fresh fruits and vegetables are available out of season; regional, national, and global markets expand as transportation and communication systems improve)
   4. Knows the various ways in which people satisfy their basic needs and wants through the production of goods and services in different regions of the world (e.g., growing food and shopping for food in a developing vs. a developed society, economic activities in a rural region vs. those in an urban region in the same U.S. state)
   5. Knows how regions are linked economically and how trade affects the way people earn their living in each region (e.g., the flow of fuels from Southwest Asia to industrialized, energy-poor regions of the world; the flow of electronic goods from Pacific Rim nations to the United States)  A 
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands the spatial aspects of systems designed to deliver goods and services (e.g., the movement of a product from point of manufacture to point of use; imports, exports, and trading patterns of various countries; interruptions in world trade such as war, crop failures, and labor strikes)  A 
   2. Understands issues related to the spatial distribution of economic activities (e.g., the impact of economic activities in a community on the surrounding areas, the effects of the gradual disappearance of small-scale retail facilities such as corner general stores and gas stations, the economic and social impacts on a community when a large factory or other economic activity leaves and moves to another place)
   3. Understands factors that influence the location of industries in the United States (e.g., geographical factors, factors of production, spatial patterns)
   4. Understands the primary geographic causes for world trade (e.g., the theory of comparative advantage that explains trade advantages associated with Hong Kong-made consumer goods, Chinese textiles, or Jamaican sugar; countries that export mostly raw materials and import mostly fuels and manufactured goods)
   5. Understands historic and contemporary economic trade networks (e.g., the triangular trade routes of the 16th and 17th centuries; national and global patterns of migrant workers; economic relationships under imperialism such as American colonies and England in the 18th and 19th centuries, or Belgium and the Congo in the 20th century)
   6. Understands historic and contemporary systems of transportation and communication in the development of economic activities (e.g., the effect of refrigerated railroad cars, air-freight services, pipelines, telephone services, facsimile transmission services, satellite-based communications systems)
   7. Knows primary, secondary, and tertiary activities in a geographic context (e.g., primary economic activities such as coal mining and salmon fishing; secondary economic activities such as the manufacture of shoes and the associated worldwide trade in raw materials; tertiary economic activity such as restaurants, theaters, and hotels)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Knows the spatial distribution of major economic systems and their relative merits in terms of productivity and the social welfare of workers (e.g., North Korea as a command economy, Burkina Faso as a traditional economy in the hinterlands beyond its cities, Singapore as a market economy)
   2. Understands the historical movement patterns of people and goods and their relationships to economic activity (e.g., spatial patterns of early trade routes in the era of sailing ships, land-use patterns that resulted in a system of monoculture)
   3. Understands the relationships between various settlement patterns, their associated economic activities, and the relative land values (e.g., land values and prominent urban features, the zoned uses of land and the value of that land, economic factors and location of particular types of industries and businesses)
   4. Understands the advantages and disadvantages of international economic patterns (e.g., how land values in an area may change due to the investment of foreign capital; the causes and geographic consequences of an international debt crisis; the advantages and disadvantages of allowing foreign-owned businesses to purchase land, open factories, or conduct other kinds of business in a country)

 A  = Assessment items available