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List of Benchmarks for Geography

Standard 10.Understands the nature and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows the basic components of culture (e.g., language, social organization, beliefs and customs, forms of shelter, economic activities, education systems)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows the similarities and differences in characteristics of culture in different regions (e.g., in terms of environment and resources, technology, food, shelter, social organization, beliefs and customs, schooling, what girls and boys are allowed to do)  A 
   2. Understands how different people living in the same region maintain different ways of life (e.g., the cultural differences between Native Americans and Europeans living along the eastern seaboard in the 17th century; differences among Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims living in India today)
   3. Understands how cultures differ in their use of similar environments and resources (e.g., comparing how people live in Phoenix, Arizona with how people live in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
   4. Understands cultural change (in terms of, e.g., the role of women in society, the role of children in society, clothing styles, modes of transportation, food preferences, types of housing, attitudes toward the environment and resources)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows the distinctive cultural landscapes associated with migrant populations (e.g., Chinatowns in the Western world, European enclaves in Japan and China in the 19th century, Little Italy sections of American cities from the beginning of the 19th century to the present)
   2. Knows ways in which communities reflect the cultural background of their inhabitants (e.g., distinctive building styles, billboards in Spanish, foreign-language advertisements in newspapers)
   3. Understands the significance of patterns of cultural diffusion (e.g., the use of terraced rice fields in China, Japan, Indonesia, and the Philippines; the use of satellite television dishes in the United States, England, Canada, and Saudi Arabia)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Knows how cultures influence the characteristics of regions (e.g., level of technological achievement, cultural traditions, social institutions)
   2. Understands how human characteristics make specific regions of the world distinctive (e.g., the effects of early Spanish settlement in the southwestern United States, the impact of Buddhism in shaping social attitudes in Southeast Asia, the specific qualities of Canada's culture regions resulting from the patterns of migration and settlement over four centuries)
   3. Understands how evolving political and economic alliances may affect the traditional cohesiveness of world culture regions (e.g., post-reunification Germany and its economic effect on the European Union, NAFTA's effect on trade relations among the United States, Canada, and Mexico)
   4. Knows the role culture plays in incidents of cooperation and conflict in the present-day world (e.g., conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1960s, Central Europe in the 1980s and 1990s, states within the former Soviet Union in the 1990s; cooperation such as the religious and linguistic ties between Spain and parts of Latin America; ethnic ties among the Kurds living in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey)
   5. Understands how communication and transportation technologies contribute to cultural convergence or divergence (e.g., convergence created by electronic media, computers, and jet aircraft; divergence created by technologies used to reinforce nationalistic or ethnic elitism or cultural separateness and independence)

 A  = Assessment items available