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List of Benchmarks for Geography

Standard 1.Understands the characteristics and uses of maps, globes, and other geographic tools and technologies
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Understands that maps can represent his or her surroundings
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Understands the globe as a representation of the Earth
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows the basic elements of maps and globes (e.g., title, legend, cardinal and intermediate directions, scale, grid, principal parallels, meridians, projection)  A 
   2. Interprets topography using aerial photos and maps  A 
   3. Uses map grids (e.g., latitude and longitude or alphanumeric system) to plot absolute location  A 
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows the purposes and distinguishing characteristics of different map projections, including distortion on flat-map projections
   2. Uses thematic maps (e.g., patterns of population, disease, economic features, rainfall, vegetation)  A 
   3. Understands concepts such as axis, seasons, rotation, and revolution (Earth-Sun relations)
   4. Knows the advantages and disadvantages of maps, globes, and other geographic tools to illustrate a data set (e.g., data on population distribution, language-use patterns, energy consumption at different times of the year)
   5. Knows the characteristics and uses of cartograms
   6. Knows how maps help to find patterns of movement in space and time (e.g., mapping hurricane tracks over several seasons, mapping the spread of influenza throughout the world)
   7. Knows the characteristics and purposes of geographic databases (e.g., databases containing census data, land-use data, topographic information)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the advantages and disadvantages of using maps from different sources and different points of view (e.g., maps developed by the media, business, government, industry and military to show how a recently closed military installation can be utilized for civilian purposes)
   2. Knows the characteristics and uses of geographic technologies (e.g., geographic information systems (GIS) and satellite-produced imagery)
   3. Transforms primary data into maps, graphs, and charts (e.g., charts developed from recent census data ranking selected information on various topics, cartograms depicting the relative sizes of Latin American countries based on their urban populations)

 A  = Assessment items available