Standards Database Logo
Home | Browse | Search | Purpose | History | Process | Acknowledgment| Reference



Language Arts

Standard 10.Understands the characteristics and components of the media
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows the various types of media (e.g., newspapers, radio, television, billboards)
   2. Knows that there are different types of media categories (e.g., news programs, sports programs, commercials)
   3. Understands that there are common conventions used in media (e.g., the layout of a newspaper, including headlines, photographs, and different sections; how theme music, sound effects, titles, and graphics represent the beginning and ending of a television program)
   4. Understands that media messages and products are created by people (e.g., individuals and groups) and represent real and imaginary experience
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows the main formats and characteristics of familiar media (e.g., the format of quiz shows on television: host/hostess, contestants, competition for prizes of commercial value; types of advertising such as billboards, T-shirts, or commercials; characteristics of films and magazines)
   2. Understands similarities and differences among a variety of media (e.g., ways in which documentary films, the Internet, and the radio present similar information; similar categories, such as news and feature stories in magazines, tabloid newspapers, and on television; literary elements in film and written stories)
   3. Knows that a variety of people are involved in the creation of media messages and products (e.g., actors, directors, cinematographers, producers, scriptwriters, graphic artists, illustrators, news photographers)
   4. Understands that media messages and products are composed of a series of separate elements (e.g., shots in movies, sections of a newspaper)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows characteristics of a wide range of media (e.g., television news favors messages that are immediate and visual, news photographs favor messages with an emotional component)
   2. Understands the different purposes of various media (e.g., to provide entertainment or information, to persuade, to transmit culture, to focus attention on an issue)
   3. Understands how the type of media affects coverage of events or issues (e.g., how the same event is covered by the radio, television, and newspapers; how each medium shapes facts into a particular point of view; how limitations and advantages of various media affect coverage of events)
   4. Understands various elements that recur across media (e.g., common features found in print and broadcast advertising; the layout of magazines and newspapers, including headlines, photographs, regular columns, feature articles, and editorials)
   5. Understands aspects of media production and distribution (e.g., different steps and choices involved in planning and producing various media; various professionals who produce media, such as news writers, photographers, camera operators, film directors, graphic artists, political cartoonists)
   6. Understands the ways in which image-makers carefully construct meaning (e.g., idea and word choice by authors, images created by photographers, television programs created by groups of people, photos or cutlines chosen in newspapers)  A 
   7. Understands influences on the construction of media messages and images (e.g., the historical period or place in which they were made; laws that govern mass media, such as truth in advertising; the socio-cultural background of the target audience; financial factors such as sponsorship; cause-and-effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands that media messages have economic, political, social, and aesthetic purposes (e.g., to make money, to gain power or authority over others, to present ideas about how people should think or behave, to experiment with different kinds of symbolic forms or ideas)
   2. Understands how different media (e.g., documentaries, current affairs programs, web pages) are structured to present a particular subject or point of view
   3. Understands aspects of the construction of media messages and products (e.g., the significance of all parts of a visual text, such as how a title might tie in with main characters or themes)
   4. Understands production elements that contribute to the effectiveness of a specific medium (e.g., the way black-and-white footage implies documented truth; the way set design suggests aspects of a character’s socio-cultural context; effectiveness of packaging for similar products and their appeal to purchasers)
   5. Understands aspects of media ownership and control (e.g., concentration of power and influence with a few companies; diversification of media corporations into other industries; the commercial nature of media; influence of origins on a media message or product)
   6. Understands the influence of different factors (e.g., media owners, sponsors of specific programs, codes governing advertising aimed at children, copyright laws) on media production, distribution, and advertising (e.g., whether a program is scheduled late at night or at peak times, whether a film is released in theaters or only on video)
   7. Understand different aspects of advertising in media (e.g., advertising intertwined with media content, such as advertising copy presented in the form of news stories or the close association of feature articles with surrounding advertisements; the influence of advertising on virtually every aspect of the media, such as the structure of newspapers; advertisers as a pressure group; sponsorship as a form of advertising; ambience in media that is sympathetic to advertising, such as lifestyles portrayed on television)
   8. Understands the extent to which audience influences media production (e.g., selection of audiences on the basis of their importance to advertisers or media institutions; production of programs with high audience ratings and low production costs, such as game shows; how media producers determine or predict the nature of audiences)
   9. Understands the relationship between media and the production and marketing of related products (e.g., how and why books are reissued in conjunction with film releases; how the target audience for a film determines the range of products marketed and this marketing in turn helps shape the film)
   10. Understands the influence of media on society as a whole (e.g., influence in shaping various governmental, social, and cultural norms; influence on the democratic process; influence on beliefs, lifestyles, and understanding of relationships and culture; how it shapes viewer’s perceptions of reality; the various consequences in society of ideas and images in media)
   11. Understands legal and ethical responsibilities involved in media use (e.g., censorship; copyright laws; guidelines for Fair Use; Creative Commons licenses; FCC regulations; protection of the rights of authors and media owners; standards for quality programming; regulations for broadcast repeats; forms of media self-control; governmental, social, and cultural agencies that regulate media content and products)
   12. Understands the role of the media in addressing social and cultural issues (e.g., creating or promoting causes: U.N. military action, election of political parties; use of media to achieve governmental, societal, and cultural goals)
   13. Knows safe and ethical behaviors in personal electronic communication and interaction

 A  = Assessment items available