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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 8.Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands the social and political characteristics of Greek city-states (e.g., significant similarities and differences between Athenian democracy and Spartan military aristocracy; hierarchical relationships in Greek societies and the civic, economic, and social tasks performed by men and women of different classes; the location and political structure of the major Greek city-states)
   2. Understands the major cultural elements of Greek society (e.g., the major characteristics of Hellenic sculpture, architecture, and pottery and how they reflected or influenced social values and culture; characteristics of Classical Greek art and architecture and how they are reflected in modern art and architecture; Socrates' values and ideas as reflected in his trial; how Greek gods and goddesses represent non-human entities, and how gods, goddesses, and humans interact in Greek myths)
   3. Understands significant military developments of the Persian Empire (e.g., major events of the wars between Persia and the Greek city-states; reasons for Persia's failure to conquer the Aegean region; the growth of and geographic influences on the Persian Empire, from the reign of Cyrus I through the wars with Greece; sources of the conflict between the Greeks and the Persians; the four major battles of the Persian wars)
   4. Understands Alexander's achievements as a military and political leader (e.g., reasons for the disintegration of the empire into smaller areas after his rule; the campaigns, battles, and cities founded in Alexander's imperial conquests)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the political framework of Athenian society (e.g., the influence of Athenian political ideals on public life; major changes made to the Athenian political organization between the initial monarchy and the governments of Solon and Cleisthenes; the role of women in Athenian society, their rights under the law, and possible reasons why Athenian democracy was limited solely to males)
   2. Understands the role of art, literature, and mythology in Greek society (e.g., major works of Greek drama and mythology and how they reveal ancient moral values and civic culture; how the arts and literature reflected cultural traditions in ancient Greece)
   3. Understands the characteristics of Persian founding, expansion, and political organization (e.g., the political structure of Persia under Darius the Great, and how the Persian Empire ruled diverse ethnic populations; the leadership organization of Darius I, and why his "chain of command" was so effective; the effects of the Persian Wars upon the daily lives of the people of Persia and Greece)
   4. Understands elements of Alexander of Macedon's legacy (e.g., the scope and success of his imperial conquests; his rise to power, methods used to unite the empire)
   5. Understands the impact and achievements of the Hellenistic period (e.g., major lasting achievements of Hellenistic art, mathematics, science, philosophy, and political thought; the impact of Hellenism on Indian art; how architecture in West Asia after the conquests of Alexander reflected Greek and Macedonian influence)
   6. Understands the evolution, inherent advantages, and disadvantages of major governmental systems in Greek city-states in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE
   7. Understands comparisons of the creation myths of Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and nationalized China and the similarities and differences in world view they suggest
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the legacy of Greek thought and government (e.g., the importance of participatory government in Greek city-states for the development of Western political thought and institutions; essential ideas in Plato's Republic and the influence of this work on modern political thought; Athenian ideas and practices related to political freedom, national security, and justice; how the maturing democratic institutions in Greece resulted in greater restrictions on the rights and freedoms of women)
   2. Knows significant Greek writings, literature, and mythology (e.g., the prominent ideas of Greek philosophers; the significance and major works of Greek historians; significant Greek tragedies and comedies, and the values and lessons they transmitted; aspects of daily life in Greece between 600 and 200 BCE as they are represented by playwrights of the time)
   3. Understands the major events and the significance of the Persian Wars (e.g., the long-term effects of the Persian Wars upon Greece, how the internal political and military structure of the two antagonists in the Persian Wars dictated their strategies, how the Greek city-states were able to defeat the "monolithic" Persian armies and navies, Herodotus' version of the key events of the Persian Wars and how reliable this account might be)
   4. Understands Persian religious beliefs (e.g., the basic teachings of Zoroastrianism; the relationship between religion and politics in Persian society and the place of Zoroastrianism within the various levels of Persian society)
   5. Understands how conquest influenced cultural life during the Hellenistic era (e.g., the cultural diffusion of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian art and architecture through assimilation, conquest, migration, and trade; the benefits and costs of Alexander's conquests on numerous cultures, and the extent to which these conquests brought about cultural mixing and exchange)
   6. Understands the characteristics of religion, gender, and philosophy in the Hellenistic era (e.g., the significance of the interaction of Greek and Jewish traditions for the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism and early Christianity; the changes in the status of women during the Hellenistic era, their new opportunities, and greater restrictions; what different Greek philosophers considered to be a "good life")
   7. Understands how Sumerian, Egyptian, and Greek societies saw themselves in relation to their gods and how attitudes towards women are indicated in representations of their goddesses