Standards Database Logo
Home | Browse | Search | Purpose | History | Process | Acknowledgment| Reference



List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 7.Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands patterns of Phoenician political organization, culture, and trade in the Mediterranean basin (e.g., dominant trade routes, traded goods of major Phoenician port cities such as Carthage)
   2. Understands the development of Greek city-states (e.g., common features of Greek city-states in the Aegean region; the political, social, and legal character of the polis; how geography influenced the location and development of Greek city-states)
   3. Understands elements of Judaism and how it compares to other religions (e.g., the differences between Jewish monotheism and the polytheism of Southwest Asia, the ethical teachings of Judaism illustrated in stories from the Hebrew Scriptures, the major events in the early history of Judaism through the Babylonian Captivity)
   4. Understands major technological, military, and political events in the development of Kushite society (e.g., the importance of Nile Valley trade and the decline of the New Kingdom as factors in the rise of the Kushite state in the 1st millennium BCE, how iron was used in Kushite society and which uses were most important to the kingdom)
   5. Understands characteristics of pastoral nomadic societies (e.g., the importance of the horse to the development of pastoral nomadism and cavalry warfare; reasons for conflict and economic interdependence between pastoral nomadic peoples of Central Asia and major agrarian states of Eurasia, the location and range of nomadic peoples in the 1st millennium BCE and how they moved their herds and belongings)
   6. Understands geographical and architectural features of Egypt and Kush (e.g., the locations of Egypt and Kush on the African continent and the geographic features that either assisted or hampered communication between these two kingdoms, what architectural evidence suggests about the relationship between Egypt and Kush)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the role of technology in societies of Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region (e.g., the fundamentals of iron-making technology and consequences of iron tools and weapons to those societies)
   2. Understands characteristics of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires (e.g., the geographic extent of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and sources of their power and wealth, the significance of geographic features to the success of these empires, what Assyrian art indicates about Assyrian culture and society)
   3. Knows the locations of significant Greek city-states and colonies in the Black Sea, Northern Africa, and the Western Mediterranean basin and reasons for their establishment
   4. Understands social development and religious beliefs of Jewish civilization (e.g., the course of development of the Jewish kingdoms and the Jews' maintenance of religious and cultural traditions despite destruction of these kingdoms, the significance of the Torah in Judaism)
   5. Understands cultural elements of Kush society and their interaction with Egyptian civilization (e.g., the linguistic, architectural, and artistic achievements of Kush in the Meroitic period; how Assyrian and Kushite invasions affected Egyptian society; the social and political consequences of economic contacts between Kush and Egypt)
   6. Understands the importance of maritime trade to the kingdom of Askum (e.g., the goods traded in this kingdom, and the situation that enabled Askum to play a role in long-distance trade)
   7. Understands elements of different pastoral nomadic peoples in Central Asia (e.g., what archaeological and other evidence has revealed about Scythian and Xiongnu society and culture; the geography of arid lands of the Eastern Hemisphere, aspects of social relations between peoples of these desert and steppe lands, and how individual communities adapted to the land)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how the implementation of laws and the spread of language influenced societies of the Mediterranean Basin and Southwest Asia (e.g., the social and cultural effects of the spread of alphabetic writing in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean Basin, social sources of and differences in laws created by early lawmakers)
   2. Understands events that led to the spread of Judaism (e.g., the significance of the Babylonian captivity for the subsequent history and survival of Judaism, the significance of the Jewish diaspora for the transmission of Judaism in the Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia)
   3. Understands how Kush culture interacted with or reflected characteristics of other civilizations (e.g., the importance of political, commercial, and cultural relations between Egypt and Kush; how Kush could be viewed as a cultural satellite of Egypt, or its own distinctive civilization or both, and the evidence used to support such arguments; how Kushite achievements during the Meroitic period might have been seen by contemporaries in the Nile Delta, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Assyria)
   4. Understands the emergence of states south of the Sahara desert and the influence of metal technology in Sub-Saharan and West Africa (e.g., theories about the spread of iron technology in West and East Africa, whether iron technology was brought to West Africa or developed in this region independently, what archaeological evidence such as Nok terra cotta figures and metal implements illustrate about the society and culture of their West African creators)
   5. Understands the interaction between pastoral nomadic societies, warrior states, and agrarian states in Central Asia (e.g., how the Scythian and Xiongnu warrior states arose among the pastoral nomadic peoples on the Central Asian steppes, the circumstances and trade that led to interdependence and conflict between pastoral nomadic and agrarian societies such as Xiongnu and China)