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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 6.Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Knows areas of Eurasia and Africa where cities and dense farming populations appeared between 4000 and 1000 BCE, and understands the connection between the spread of agriculture and the acceleration of world population growth
   2. Understands how new ideas, products, techniques, and institutions spread from one region to another and the conditions under which people assimilated or rejected new ideas or adapted them to cultural traditions
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the emergence of civilizations in Southwest Asia, the Nile valley, India, China, and the Eastern Mediterranean and how they represented a decisive transformation in human history
   2. Understands why geographic, environmental, and economic conditions favored hunter-gatherer, pastoral, and small-scale agricultural ways of life rather than urban civilizations in many parts of the world
   3. Knows the fundamental inventions, discoveries, techniques, and institutions that appeared from 4000 to 1000 BCE, and understands the significance of bronze technology for economic, cultural, and political life
   4. Understands the concept of a patriarchal society and the ways in which the legal and customary positions of aristocratic, urban, or peasant women may have changed in early civilizations
   5. Understands the concept of "civilization" (e.g., the various criteria used to define "civilization;" fundamental differences between civilizations and other forms of social organization, such as hunter-gatherer bands, Neolithic agricultural societies, and pastoral nomadic societies; how Mohenjo-Daro meets criteria for defining civilization)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of political and economic institutions (e.g., state authority, aristocratic power, taxation systems, and institutions of coerced labor, including slavery)
   2. Understands the role of pastoral peoples in Eurasia and Africa up to 1000 BCE, and understands the relationship of conflict and mutual dependence between herding and agrarian societies