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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 46.Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands why humans have built cities and how the character, function, and number of cities have changed over time
   2. Understands major patterns of long-distance trade from ancient times to the present and how trade has contributed to economic and cultural change in particular societies or civilizations
   3. Understands the economic and social importance of slavery and other forms of coerced labor in various societies
   4. Understands how ideals and institutions of freedom, equality, justice, and citizenship have changed over time and from one society to another
   5. Understands ways in which human action has contributed to long-term changes in the natural environment in particular regions or worldwide
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands major changes in world population from paleolithic times to the present (e.g., why these changes occurred, the effects of major disease pandemics)
   2. Understands the emergence of capitalism (e.g., the origins, development, and characteristics of capitalism; capitalist systems compared with other systems for organizing production, labor, and trade)
   3. Understands the development of the nation-state and how nation-states differ from empires or other forms of political organization
   4. Understands political revolutionary movements of the past three centuries and their ideologies, organization, and successes or failures
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the importance of the revolutions in tool-making, agriculture, and industrialization as major turning points in human history
   2. Understands the circumstances under which European countries came to exercise temporary military and economic dominance in the world in the late 19th and 20th centuries