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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 44.Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands global influences on the environment (e.g., how population growth, urbanization, industrialization, warfare, and the global market economy have contributed to environmental alterations; how effective governments and citizens' groups have been at protecting the global natural environment)
   2. Understands the impact of increasing economic interdependence in different regions of the world (e.g., how global communications and changing international labor demands have shaped new patterns of world migration since World War II, the effects of the European Economic Community and its growth on economic productivity and political integration in Europe, the emergence of the Pacific Rim economy and economic growth in South Korea and Singapore in recent decades, the effects of new transport and communications technology on patterns of world trade and finance)
   3. Understands efforts to improve political and social conditions around the world (e.g., the progress of human and civil rights around the globe since the 1948 U.N. Declaration of Human Rights; how the apartheid system was dismantled in South Africa and the black majority won voting rights; the progress made since the 1970s in resolving conflict between Israel and neighboring states)
   4. Understands how feminist movements and social conditions have affected the lives of women around the world, and the extent of women's progress toward social equality, economic opportunity, and political rights in various countries
   5. Understands scientific and technological trends of the second half of the 20th century (e.g, worldwide implications of the revolution in nuclear, electronic, and computer technology; the social and cultural implications of medical successes such as the development of antibiotics and vaccines and the conquest of smallpox; the "consumer societies" of industrialized nations compared with those in predominantly agrarian nations)
   6. Understands cultural trends of the second half of the 20th century (e.g., the influence of television, the Internet, and other forms of electronic communication on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide; how the world's religions have responded to challenges and uncertainties in society and the world)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the causes and effects of population growth and urbanization (e.g., why population growth rate is accelerating around the world, and connections between population growth and economic and social development in many countries; the global proliferation of cities and the rise of the megalopolis, as well as the impact of urbanization on family life, standards of living, class relations, and ethnic identity; why scientific, technological, and medical advances have improved living standards but have failed to eradicate hunger, poverty, and epidemic disease)
   2. Understands influences on economic development around the world (e.g., why economic disparities between industrialized and developing nations have persisted or increased, how neo-colonialism and authoritarian political leadership have affected development in African and Asian countries, the continuing growth of mass consumption of commodities and resources since World War II)
   3. Understands events that led to an easing of Cold War tensions from the 1970s to the early 1990s (e.g., why the Cold War eased in the 1970s and how the Helsinki Accords, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and Reagan-Gorbachev "summit diplomacy" affected progress toward detente; the collapse of the government of the Soviet Union and other communist governments around the world in the late 1980s and 1990s; the internal and external forces that led to changes within the USSR and in its relations with Eastern European countries)
   4. Understands instances of political conflict and terrorism in modern society (e.g., the changes continuing urban protest and reformist economic policies have caused in post-Mao China under authoritarian rule; the causes, consequences, and moral implications of mass killings or famine in different parts of the world; possible factors in modern society that facilitate politically motivated terrorism and random forms of violence; world events that gave rise to the 1989 movement in China and led to the Tiannamen Square protest, the government response to this movement, and the international reaction)
   5. Understands the definition of "fundamentalism," and the political objectives of militant religious movements in various countries of the world, as well as the social and economic factors that contribute to the growth of these movements
   6. Understands the emergence of a global culture (e.g., connections between electronic communications, international marketing, and the rise of a popular "global culture" in the late 20th century; how modern arts have expressed and reflected social transformations, political changes, and how they have been internationalized)
   7. Understands the importance or meaning of the natural environment for societies around the world
   8. Understands the role and difficulties of the present day migrant worker (e.g., the Southeast Asian domestic in the Persian Gulf, the American oil executive in Saudi Arabia, the Moroccan factory worker in France)
   9. Understands the motivations, moral imperatives, and goals of specific separatist movements around the globe and the potential impact on the affected populations
   10. Understands the effects of modern communication on consumer tastes and demands in different parts of the world
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the influences on and impact of cultural trends in the second half of the 20th century (e.g., the impact of World War II and its aftermath on literature, art, and intellectual life in Europe and other parts of the world; the meaning and social impact of innovative movements in literature and the arts such as Existentialism, Abstract Expressionism, or Pop Art; ways in which art, literature, religion, and traditional customs have expressed or strengthened national or other communal loyalties in recent times)
   2. Understands rates of economic development and the emergence of different economic systems around the globe (e.g., systems of economic management in communist and capitalist countries, as well as the global impact of multinational corporations; the impact of black markets, speculation, and trade in illegal products on national and global markets; patterns of inward, outward, and internal migration in the Middle East and North Africa, types of jobs involved, and the impact of the patterns upon national economies; the rapid economic development of East Asian countries in the late 20th century, and the relatively slow development of Sub-Saharan African countries)
   3. Understands major reasons for the great disparities between industrialized and developing nations (e.g., disparities in resources, production, capital investment, labor, or trade; possible programs and measures to help equalize these disparities)
   4. Understands the oil crisis and its aftermath in the 1970s (e.g., how the oil crisis revealed the extent and complexity of global economic interdependence; events that have affected world oil prices since 1950; relationships between U.S. domestic energy policy and foreign policy in oil producing regions since 1970)
   5. Understands the role of political ideology, religion, and ethnicity in shaping modern governments (e.g., the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in different countries and challenges to civil society in democratic states; how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America; the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state-building in the newly independent republics of Africa; significant differences among nationalist movements in Eastern Europe that have developed in the 20th century, how resulting conflicts have been resolved, and the outcomes of these conflicts)
   6. Understands the role of ethnicity, cultural identity, and religious beliefs in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe (e.g., why terrorist movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries; the tensions and contradictions between globalizing trends of the world economy and assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness, including the challenges to the role of religion in contemporary society; the meaning of jihad and other Islamic beliefs that are relevant to military activity, how these compare to the Geneva Accords, and how such laws and principles apply to terrorist acts)
   7. Understands the impact of population pressure, poverty, and environmental degradation on the breakdown of state authority in various countries in the 1980s and 1990s, and international reaction to the deterioration of these states
   8. Understands how trends in science have influenced society (e.g., interconnections between space exploration and developments since the 1950s in scientific research, agricultural productivity, consumer culture, intelligence gathering, and other aspects of contemporary life; the changing structure and organization of scientific and technological research, including the role of governments, corporations, international agencies, universities and scientific communities)
   9. Understands influences on population growth, and efforts to control such growth in modern society (e.g., how statistics from specific, diverse nations illustrate the relationship between scientific, medical, and technological advancements and population growth; China's population growth from the 1700s to 1990, why the population growth increased dramatically, and the effects of the "one-child" policy of the 1990s; issues and objections raised at the 1994 Cairo Conference on World Population and the difficulty of arriving at a consensus document on population growth)
   10. Understands the effectiveness of United Nations programs (e.g., improvements in health and welfare, whether UN programs have been cost-effective, whether programs fulfilled the purpose for which they were created, reasons for economic and arms embargoes sponsored by U.N. resolutions and the political and economic consequences for the sanctioned countries)
   11. Understands common arguments of opposition groups in various countries around the world, common solutions they offer, and the position of these ideas with regard to Western economic and strategic interests
   12. Understands gender roles across the globe (e.g., conflicts in the perception of gender roles in various religions, especially the role of women; how the legal status of women varies around the world in Muslim societies, and how the status of women from different classes has changed in the past century)
   13. Understands how global political change has altered the world economy (e.g., what participation in the world economy can mean for different countries; the relationship between demands for democratic reform and the trend toward privatization and economic liberalization in developing economies and former communist states, and how multilateral aid organizations and multinational corporations have supported or challenged these trends)
   14. Understands how specific countries have implemented social and cultural changes (e.g., the different manifestations of China's contingency quest for a "new culture" throughout the 20th century, and what the Cultural Revolution meant for Chinese people in the late 1960s; models for family life, the economy, and social and political institutions suggested by modern Muslim intellectuals)
   15. Understands "liberation theology" and the ideological conflicts that have surrounded this philosophy