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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 43.Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands the shift in political and economic conditions after World War II (e.g., why and how the United Nations was established, where it has been active in the world, and how successful it has been as a peacekeeper; the United States' economic position and international leadership post-World War I and post-World War II; aspects of social and political conflict in China in the period following the war)
   2. Understands the development of the Cold War (e.g., how political, economic, and military conditions in the mid-1940's led to the Cold War; the significance of international Cold War crises such as the Berlin blockade, the Korean War, the Polish worker's protest, the Hungarian revolt, the Suez crisis, the Cuban missile crisis, the Indonesian civil war, and the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia; how the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power and influence in Europe)
   3. Understands political and social change in the developing countries of the Middle East, Africa, and Asia after World War II (e.g., how Israel was created, and why persistent conflict developed between Israel and both Arab Palestinians and neighboring states; the African experience under European colonial rule; major social and economic forces that compelled many Vietnamese to seek refuge in foreign countries)
   4. Understands the position of women in developing countries (e.g., as compared to their position in industrialized countries, how change has occurred in different societies)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands factors that brought about the political and economic transformation of Western and Eastern Europe after World War II (e.g., how Western European countries and Japan achieved rapid economic recovery after the war; the impact of the Marshall Plan, the European Economic Community, government planning, and the growth of welfare states upon the political stabilization of Western Europe; the formations of the Warsaw Pact and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization after the war, and which countries have participated in each of these pacts; why Germany and Berlin were divided after the 1948 crisis, and the resulting problems)
   2. Understands post-war relations between the Soviet Union, Europe, and the United States (e.g., differences in the political ideologies and values of the Western democracies and the Soviet bloc; the impact of Soviet domination in Eastern Europe; interconnections between superpower rivalries and the development of new military, nuclear, and space technology)
   3. Understands the rise of the Communist Party in China between 1936 and 1949, the factors leading to Mao's programs (e.g., the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution) and their results (e.g., effects on economic development, human suffering)
   4. Understands nationalist movements and other attempts by colonial countries to achieve independence after World War II (e.g., the impact of Indian nationalism on other movements in Africa and Asia, and reasons for the division of the subcontinent; how World War II and postwar global politics affected the mass nationalist movements in colonial Africa and Southeast Asia; factors that enabled some African and Asian countries to achieve independence through constitutional devolution of power, while others used armed revolution; the methods used by Indians to achieve independence from British rule and the effects of Mohandas Gandhi's call for nonviolent action)
   5. Understands political conditions in Africa after World War II (e.g., the moral, social, political, and economic implications of apartheid; the diverse leadership and governing styles of African regimes through the second half of the 20th century)
   6. Understands important events in the struggle between Israelis and Palestinians since 1948 and the argument on each side for rights to the disputed land
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands political shifts in Europe and Asia following World War II (e.g., why fascism was discredited after World War II; how popular democratic institutions were established in such countries as Italy, the German Federal Republic, Greece, India, Spain, and Portugal between 1945 and 1975)
   2. Understands the impact of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War (e.g., the effects of United States and Soviet competition for influence or dominance upon such countries as Egypt, Iran, the Congo, Vietnam, Chile, and Guatemala; the impact of the Cold War on art, literature, and popular culture around the world)
   3. Understands reasons for the division of the Indian subcontinent (e.g., events that led to the dispute over Kashmir and the resulting partition of the Indian subcontinent, and the role of the United Nations in the mediation of the dispute; how the withdrawal of the British and the division between Muslims and Hindus affected the division of the Indian subcontinent into two nations)
   4. Understands the impact of independence movements in various countries and whether they were successful (e.g., the connections between the rise of independence movements in Africa and Southeast Asia and social transformations such as accelerated population growth, urbanization, and new Western-educated elites; the chronology of the Algerian struggle for independence, the role of domestic and international public opinion in the actions of the government, and how the French presence influenced the outcome; how diverse independence movements in Asia and Africa succeeded)
   5. Understands reasons for the shift in government in Africa and how Africans responded (e.g., reasons for the replacement of parliamentary-style governments with military regimes and one-party states in much of Africa, how Africans survived and resisted apartheid)
   6. Understands factors that influenced political conditions in China after World War II (e.g., how much of the Communist success in the Chinese civil war was the result of Mao Zedong's leadership or Jiang Jieshi's lack of leadership, why rifts developed in the relationships between the U.S.S.R. and China in spite of the common bond of Communist-led government)
   7. Understands the strategic role of the Muslim countries during the Cold War (e.g., the importance of geography, economy, and population) and the change in the region's role since the breakup of the Soviet Union
   8. Understands similarities between the stance of Buddhist priests against the Diem regime in Vietnam and the Muslim stance against the Kukarn regime in Indonesia
   9. Understands how the Balfour Declaration affected British policy toward Palestine and the political goals of the Arab League and the Zionist Movement, and how the White Paper Reports affected Jewish and Arab inhabitants of Palestine