Standards Database Logo
Home | Browse | Search | Purpose | History | Process | Acknowledgment| Reference



List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 41.Understands the causes and global consequences of World War II
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands the rise of fascism and Nazism in Europe and Japan (e.g., the ideologies of fascism and Nazism, and how fascist regimes seized power and gained mass support in Germany, Italy, Spain, and Japan; German, Italian, and Japanese military conquests and drives for empires in the 1930's; how Hitler, Franco, and Mussolini rose to power; the causes of the Spanish Civil War and how this war coincided with the rise of fascism in Europe; what Nazi oppression in Germany was like)
   2. Understands influences on the outcome of World War II (e.g., the major turning points in the war; the principal theaters of conflict in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union, North Africa, Asia, and the Pacific; the political and diplomatic leadership of individuals such as Churchill, Roosevelt, Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin)
   3. Understands the human costs of World War II (e.g., how and why the Nazi regime forged a "war against the Jews," and the devastation suffered by Jews and other groups in the Nazi Holocaust; social problems as a consequence of the war)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands events that led to the outbreak of World War II (e.g., the importance of the legacy of World War I, the depression, ethnic and ideological conflicts, imperialism, and traditional political or economic rivalries as underlying causes of World War II; the precipitating causes of the war and the reasons for early German and Japanese victories between 1939 and 1942; how Hitler capitalized on the despair of the German people to rise to power)
   2. Understands the positions of the major powers Britain, France, the U.S., and the Soviet Union on fascist aggression, and the consequences of their failure to take forceful measures to stop this aggression
   3. Understands the influence of Nazism on European society and Jewish culture (e.g., European and Jewish resistance movements to the Nazis and their policies, discrepancies between Nazi public announcements concerning Jews and the actual experiences of Jews between 1941 and 1944)
   4. Understands the impact of World War II on civilian populations and soldiers (e.g., the roles of women and children during the war and how they differed in Allied and Axis countries, the hardships of the war on soldiers from both sides)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands motives and consequences of the Soviet nonaggression pacts with Germany and Japan (e.g., the Munich Agreement in 1938, what it meant for Stalin, and how it lead to the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939)
   2. Understands the Holocaust and its impact on Jewish culture and European society (e.g., the chronology of the Nazi "war on the Jews," and the geography and scale of Jewish deaths resulting from this policy; personal reasons for resistance to or compliance with Nazi policies and orders; the brutality of Nazi genocide in the Holocaust as revealed in personal stories of the victims)
   3. Understands the overall effect of World War II on various facets of society (e.g., the impact on industrial production, political goals, communication, national mobilization, technological innovations, and scientific research, and how these in turn made an impact upon war strategies, tactics, and levels of destruction; the consequences of World War II as a "total war")
   4. Understands the rise of Nazism and how it was received by society (e.g., the essence and elements of Nazi ideology as represented in Mein Kampf and the Nazi party platform, and their use of terror against "enemies of the state"; the propaganda techniques employed by the Nazis to promote their ideas; political debate and opposition to the Nazi and Fascist movements in Germany and Italy in the 1920s and 1930s)
   5. Understands the exceptional violence of the Spanish Civil War (e.g., as described in works by George Orwell and Ernest Hemingway) and understands how foreign intervention affected the outcome of this war
   6. Understands the argument that the severity of the Treaty of Versailles caused unavoidable revolt against the nations that imposed it
   7. Understands Japan's "greater East Asia co-prosperity" sphere and the support of this idea in European colonies in East Asia
   8. Understands the climax and moral implications of World War II (e.g., the moral implications of military technologies and techniques used in the war, statistics of population displacement caused by the war, debates surrounding the use of the atomic bomb to end the war with Japan)