Standards Database Logo
Home | Browse | Search | Purpose | History | Process | Acknowledgment| Reference



List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 40.Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands treaties and other efforts to achieve peace and recovery from World War I (e.g., the conflicting aims and aspirations of the conferees at Versailles, and how the major powers responded to the terms of the settlement; why and how the League of Nations was founded, and its initial goals and limitations; the nations that were and were not invited to participate in the League of Nations; changes made to political boundaries after the peace treaties ending World War I, and which countries were winners or losers)
   2. Understands how the settlements of World War I influenced the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America (e.g., the mandate system created by the League of Nations and how it changed European rule in the Middle East and Africa, how World War I settlements contributed to the rise of both Pan-Arabism and nationalist struggles for the independence in the Middle East, how the readjustment of national borders in Africa after World War I affected people in East and West Africa)
   3. Understands the emergence of a new mass and popular culture between 1900 and 1940 (e.g., how new modes of transportation affected world commerce, international migration, and work and leisure habits; how the new media - newspapers, magazines, commercial advertising, film, and radio - contributed to the rise of mass culture around the world; the new approaches to visual art represented by the works of Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse; the types of leisure activity and sports people enjoyed; changes in clothing fashions for men and women, and how they reflected changes in social attitudes and values)
   4. Understands the economic and social impact of the Great Depression (e.g., how the Great Depression affected industrialized economies and societies around the world; the human cost of the depression; how governments, businesses, social groups, families and individuals coped with hardships of world depression)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the immediate and long-term political and social effects of World War I (e.g., the objectives and achievements of the women's movements in the context of World War I and its aftermath, the causes and effects of the U.S. isolationist policies on world politics and international relations in the 1920s, the agreements on reparation payments made at the Conference of Versailles and how these agreements corresponded to Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points)
   2. Understands internal shifts in the political conditions of China and Japan in the 1920s and 1930s (e.g., the factors that influenced the struggle for dominance in China between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, how militarism and fascism derailed parliamentary democracy in Japan)
   3. Understands the goals and policies of European colonial rule in India, Africa, and Southeast Asia, and how these policies affected indigenous societies and economies (e.g., the response to the Moroccan resistance movement against the Spanish led by Abd al Quadir)
   4. Understands major discoveries in science and medicine in the first half of the 20th century (e.g., those made by Curie, Einstein, Freud) and how they affected the quality of life and traditional views of nature, the cosmos, and the psyche
   5. Understands influences on art and culture in Europe and around the world in the early 20th century (e.g., the social and cultural dimensions of mass consumption of goods; the impact and aftermath of World War I on literature, art, and intellectual life in Europe and the U.S.; the impact of innovative movements in Western art and literature on other regions of the world; the influence of African and Asian art forms in Europe)
   6. Understands how the Great Depression affected economies and systems of government globally (e.g., how the Depression contributed to the growth of communist, fascist, and socialist movements, and how it affected capitalist economic theory and practice among leading Western industrial powers; how the depression affected countries dependent on foreign markets and foreign capital investment)
   7. Understands the reflections of Depression-era hunger and poverty in the works of such artists as Käthe Kollwitz, José Clemente Orozco, and Dorothea Lange, and their impact upon society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how the collapse of the German, Hapsburg, and Ottoman Empires and the creation of new states affected international relations in Europe and the Middle East
   2. Understands how World War I influenced demographics and the international economy (e.g., the impact of the war on the international economy and the effects of industrial conversion from war to peace in Britain, France, Italy, and Germany; significant refugee populations created as a result of World War I, and their movements and dispersion)
   3. Understands reasons for the shifts in the political conditions in nations around the world after World War I (e.g., how social and economic conditions of colonial rule, and ideals of liberal democracy and national autonomy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India, Africa, and Southeast Asia; the successes and failures of democratic government in Latin America in the context of class divisions, economic dependency, and U.S. intervention; how Japan's domestic democracy may have fallen victim to its imperialist foreign policy)
   4. Understands the impact of scientific and technological innovations on early 20th century society (e.g., major medical successes in the treatment of infectious diseases, the causes and social costs of the world influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, how new forms of communication affected the relationship of government to citizens and bolstered the power of new authoritarian regimes)
   5. Understands how the emergence of new art, literature, music, and scientific theories influenced society in the early 20th century (e.g., the impact of innovative movements in art, architecture, and literature, such as Cubism, Surrealism, Expressionism, Socialist Realism, and jazz; reflections of war in such movements as Dadaism, and the literary works of Remarque, Spender, Brooke, and Hemingway; the major themes of writers of the "Lost Generation" in the post-World War I era; prominent musicians and composers of the first half of the century and the cultural impact of their music around the world; how Freud's psychoanalytic method and theories of the unconscious changed views of human motives and human nature)
   6. Understands the causes of the Great Depression and its immediate and long-term consequences for the world (e.g., the financial, economic, and social causes of the Great Depression, and its global impact; how the Depression affected colonial peoples of Africa and Asia, and how it contributed to the growth of nationalist movements; how the Great Depression affected the Middle East under British and French mandates; to what degree Britain, Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States employed the military-industrial complex to stimulate recovery from the Great Depression)
   7. Understands how the treaties ending World War I and the League of Nations addressed different groups of people (e.g., how treaties ending World War I accorded with Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points and the processes by which the treaties were established, the varied reactions of the Chinese to the provisions of the Versailles Peace Treaty, the goals and failures of the "racial equality clause" in the preamble to the Covenant of the League of Nations)
   8. Understands post-World War I shifts in geographic and political borders in Europe and the Middle East (e.g., how the postwar borders in Southern Europe and the Middle East were created, including influence of local opinion, prewar "spheres of influence," long-and short-term interests; how Ataturk worked to modernize Turkey, how Turkish society and international society responded)
   9. Understands elements of social and political change in China in the early 20th century (e.g., which populations supported the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party, and how the Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s changed viewpoints regarding these two parties; how Mao Zedong adapted Marxism to Chinese needs and how he viewed the peasantry as a revolutionary force; the goals and outcomes of the three major revolutions in China in the first half of the century)
   10. Understands the conditions of the Hussein-McMahon correspondence and the Sykes-Picot agreement, how they differed from the conditions of the treaties of Versailles and San Remo, and what each party sought to gain from these efforts
   11. Understands the origins and consequences for international trade of the U.S. Smoot-Hawley Tariff (e.g., how international trade was affected by the depression, how other nations reacted to the tariff)