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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 4.Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands how the development of different types of tools influenced Chinese civilization (e.g., the uses and significance of bronze tool-making technology, weapons, and luxury goods in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE; the unique nature of Chinese writing tools, surfaces, and styles in the 2nd millennia BCE)
   2. Understands significant characteristics of early Chinese society and religion (e.g., the influence of the natural environment on Huang He [Yellow River] civilization compared to its impact on Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley; early Chinese urban societies and how they compare to those of Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, the nature of Shang ancestor worship and what it illustrates about concepts of life and death in Shang society)
   3. Understands the role of technology in early agrarian societies (e.g., how the advent of the plow influenced new agrarian societies in Southwest Asia, the Mediterranean basin, and temperate Europe; how megalithic stone buildings, such as Stonehenge, indicate the emergence of complex agrarian societies in Europe; changes for humankind and civilization brought on by the bow and arrow and by pottery; what physical evidence indicated about the characteristics of the agrarian society of ancient Egypt and the life of the Pharaoh)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the rise of urban and complex agrarian societies in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE (e.g., how the Minoan civilization emerged on Crete and its significant cultural achievements; the origins and possible purpose of Stonehenge and the effort made to create it)
   2. Understands how the natural environment shaped Huang He civilization (e.g., how changes in the course of the Huang He river challenged citizens and government)
   3. Understands what archaeological evidence (e.g., oracle bone inscriptions, bronze vessels) reveals about Chinese history during the Shang Dynasty
   4. Understands the significance of advancements in tool and weapon technology (e.g., the technology of bronze casting and why bronze weapons were superior to those made of stone; how the development of the plow, bow and arrow, and pottery affected early man and led to changes in gender roles)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the social, cultural, and political characteristics of the Shang Dynasty (e.g., the development of royal government under the Shang Dynasty and the development of social hierarchy, religious institutions, and writing; the role that Chinese peasants played in sustaining the wealth and power of the Shang political centers)
   2. Understands interaction between urban centers of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Aegean Basin, and the Eastern Mediterranean coast (e.g., the important urban centers of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Aegean Basin; the role of cities along the Mediterranean coast as commercial bridges between the trading networks of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean)
   3. Understands how different agrarian societies developed (e.g., what archaeological evidence suggests about the growth of agricultural societies in West Africa and Southeast Asia, the origins of domesticated rice in Southeast Asia and the routes of its spread throughout the rest of Asia)
   4. Understands how environmental conditions such as the prevailing wind, current, and flooding patterns, influenced civilizations in the Tigris, Nile, and Huang He valleys
   5. Understands evidence of social and cultural development of Chinese civilization in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE (e.g., evidence that the Chinese had developed urbanization, sophisticated social cooperation, and written language before 1700 BCE; the physical evidence that highlights possible cultural contact between China and other centers of civilization in antiquity)
   6. Understands the impact of various technologies (e.g., the wheel, pottery, the sail, weaving, bronze casting, the plow) upon social organization and the political and economic power of the groups that used them
   7. Understands influences on the cultural and economic conditions of Minoan and Egyptian civilizations (e.g., the nature and extent of cultural contact between Minoan and Egyptian civilizations, the extent of Minoan trade and its impact on the development of Minoan civilization)