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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 38.Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands factors that transformed American and European society in the early 20th century (e.g., how industrial development affected the culture and working lives of middle and working class people in the United States, Japan, and Europe; major scientific, medical, and technological advances in Europe and the United States at the turn of the century; popular attitudes regarding material progress and the West's global leadership)
   2. Understands the consequences of the significant revolutions of the early 20th century (e.g., the prominent figures in the Mexican Revolution and its significance as the first 20th century movement in which peasants played a prominent role)
   3. Understands why Dr. Sun Yatsen is considered an important figure in the history of modern China
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the industrial power of Great Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States in the early 20th century (e.g., how the nations compare statistically, the importance and potential of industrialization)
   2. Understands prominent features and ideas of liberalism, social reformism, conservatism, and socialism in the early 20th century (e.g., the "welfare state" promoted by liberal ideals; the influential ideas of leading Europeans such as Stanley Baldwin, Ramsay MacDonald, Emmeline Pankhurst, Jean JaurŠs, Raymond Poincar‚ Peter Stolypin, Alfred Krupp, or Rosa Luxemborg)
   3. Understands events that led to revolutions in the early 20th century (e.g., causes, events, and consequences of the Russian "Bloody Sunday" in 1905, and the ensuing revolution; the promises of China's 1911 republican revolution and the New Culture movement and why they failed to address China's political, economic, and social problems; what the peasantry and middle class fought for and against in the Mexican Revolution)
   4. Understands the consequences of changes inside Japan in the early 20th century (e.g., Japan's economic development, national integration, and political ideologies around the turn of the century; how Japanese territorial expansion affected the industrialization and economic development of Japan)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the diverse factors that contributed to the industrialization of various countries (e.g., how entrepreneurs, scientists, technicians, and urban workers in Asia, Africa, and Latin America participated in world trade and industrialization; how changes in land ownership policy, new technology, and government subsidies encouraged industrial development in Japan)
   2. Understands why European colonial territories and Latin American countries continued to maintain largely agricultural and mining economies in the early 20th century (e.g., restrictive policies of the European countries regarding industrialization in the colonies)
   3. Understands elements of the South African (Anglo-Boer) War (e.g., the causes, course, and consequences of the war for Boers, British, and African populations; the degree to which it was an example of "total war;" the attitude of the British toward non-British people and colonial troops at the time of the Boer War)
   4. Understands the diverse events that led to and resulted from the Russian Revolution of 1905 (e.g., the Russo-Japanese War, "Bloody Sunday," the October Manifesto, groups agitating for political reform and those supporting radical changes)
   5. Understands the reforms of Ottoman government and society advocated by the Young Turk movement, its origins, and possible reasons for its success
   6. Understands the role of the peasantry in the Mexican Revolution (e.g., the aspects of nationalism expressed in the works of the Mexican Revolution by muralists Jos, Clemente Orozco, David Siquieros, and Diego Riviera, and how these murals fostered support for the Revolution among the peasantry; the impact of the Mexican Revolution on the peasantry)
   7. Understands events and ideas that led to China's revolutionary movements in the early 20th century (e.g., social and cultural conditions in China that led to the New Culture, or May Fourth movement; the four points of Sun Yatsen's Manifesto for the Revolutionary Alliance [Tong Meng Hui] and to whom these revolutionary goals appealed)