Standards Database Logo
Home | Browse | Search | Purpose | History | Process | Acknowledgment| Reference



List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 35.Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands the emergence of nationalist movements in Italy and Germany (e.g., the major leaders of unification and nationalism in Italy and Germany, and why these movements succeeded; the appeal of Garibaldi's nationalist Redshirts to Italians)
   2. Understand causes of large-scale population movements from rural areas to cities in continental Europe and how these movements affected the domestic and working lives of men and women
   3. Understands the impact of cultural achievements on 19th-century Europe and America (e.g., movements in literature, music, and the visual arts, and ways in which they shaped or reflected social and cultural values)
   4. Understands the political and social changes in 19th-century Latin America (e.g., where democracy failed and succeeded in Latin American nations after independence was achieved, how geography possibly influenced nation-building in Latin America, the class system in Latin America and its racial core)
   5. Understands aspects of education in 19th-century Europe (e.g., aspects of the basic school day for male and female students in the 19th century; how significantly education, or lack thereof, affected the lives and prospects of 19th century Europeans; differences in the daily lives of children from working, middle class, and upper class families)
   6. Understands how major events in the United States affected the rest of the hemisphere
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the ideas that influenced the nationalist movements (e.g., major characteristics of 19th-century European nationalism, and connections between nationalist ideology, the French Revolution, Romanticism, and liberal reform movements; the extent to which Garibaldi reflected 19th-century Romanticism; the purpose of Bismarck's "Blood and Iron" speech, and previous attempts at unification to which he refers; the chronology of significant events in the unifications of Italy and Germany)
   2. Understands movements and ideas that contributed to social change in 19th-century North America and Europe (e.g., the leading ideas of Karl Marx and the impact of Marxist beliefs and programs on politics, industry, and labor relations in Europe; the origins of women's suffrage in North America and Europe, leading figures on both continents, and their success until World War I)
   3. Understands social change and the emergence of new social class culture in 19th-century Europe (e.g., the elements of the distinctive middle-class and working class culture that developed in industrial Europe; how the average standard of living changed in Europe in the 19th century and the factors that accounted for this change; broad-ranging benefits and disadvantages of attending school for children from peasant, middle class, craft, and urban factory-working families)
   4. Understands influences on the government structure in Latin America and Mexico (e.g., the effects of foreign intervention and liberal government policies on social and economic change in Mexico; the advent of the caudillo ruler in Latin America, his supporters, and the methods by which he maintained power)
   5. Understands expansion and nation-building in the United States and Canada in the 19th century (e.g., the factors that contributed to nation-building in Canada; the territorial expansions of the United States in the 19th century, how new territories were acquired, and from whom)
   6. Understands trends in immigration within and out of Europe in the 19th century
   7. Understands cultural trends in 19th-century Europe (e.g., how leisure activity and popular culture changed throughout the 19th century, activities associated with "high culture," types of entertainment that were open to the middle and working classes)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the causes and results of the revolutions of 1848 (e.g., why these revolutions failed to achieve nationalist and democratic objectives; where revolutions occurred in 1848, how they were a chain reaction, and the goals and motivating spirit of each; the major accomplishments of prominent figures in the revolutionary era)
   2. Understands the role of nationalism in conflicts within different nations (e.g., how nationalism fostered tension and conflict in the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires, the importance of Greek nationalists' and Europeans' roles in the struggle for Greek independence from the Ottomans)
   3. Understands factors that led to social and political change in 19th-century Europe (e.g., the interconnections between labor movements, various forms of socialism, and political or social changes in Europe; the influence of industrialization, democratization, and nationalism on popular 19th-century reform movements; the extent to which Britain, France, and Italy become broadly liberal and democratic societies in the 19th century; the broad beneficial and detrimental effects of the industrial revolution on specific European countries)
   4. Understands the status of different groups in 19th-century Europe (e.g., the changing roles and status of European Jews and the rise of new forms of anti-Semitism; the goals of the women's movement in the 19th century, and the essential ideas outlined by Mary Wollstonecraft in Vindication of the Rights of Women; support for and opposition to women's suffrage in the late 19th century)
   5. Understands the status of education in 19th-century Europe (e.g., how expanded educational opportunities and literacy contributed to changes in European society and cultural life, what countries enacted compulsory education by the end of the 19th century, how school attendance figures were affected by the industrial age)
   6. Understands the emergence of new social thought in the 19th century (e.g., ways in which trends in philosophy and the new social sciences challenged and reshaped traditional patterns of thought, religious understanding, and understanding of social organization)
   7. Understands how political and economic change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century (e.g., Latin America's growing dependence on the global market economy, as well as the effects of international trade and investment on the power of landowners and the urban middle class; the consequences of economic development, elite domination, and the abolition of slavery for peasants, indigenous populations, and immigrant laborers in Latin America; the impact of the expansion of secular education upon women's legal and political rights; the roles and perspectives of the caudillo, military official, landowner, urban bourgeoisie, or church official in post-independence Latin America; attitudes toward nationalism and cultural identity in 19th-century Latin America)
   8. Understands the chronology, major events, and outcomes of the Franco-Prussian War (e.g., how it impacted the British, Bavarians, and French; how the French were agitated into war by the edited Ems telegram)
   9. Understands the definition of realpolitik and how Cavour and Bismarck exemplified this political philosophy
   10. Understands how different movements and ideas influenced society in the 19th century (e.g., the effect of the continental revolutions on the Chartist movement in England, and how the ruling classes reacted to Chartist demands; the essential ideas outlined in Marx and Engel's Communist Manifesto and their meaning in the context of late 19th-century economic, political, and social conditions)
   11. Knows the events and issues of the Dreyfus affair in France (e.g., why the French military establishment refused to pardon Dreyfus in the face of overwhelming evidence proving his innocence, how this affair became a political conflict between conservatives and progressives)
   12. Understands sources that illustrate social conditions and cultural identity in 19th-century Europe (e.g., how primary sources such as diaries reflect the life experiences of middle and working class men and women in 19th-century Europe; the characteristics of popular, diverse 19th-century art styles, such as Romanticism, Realism, and Impressionism; how Europeans shaped their identity through their view of "other" peoples and cultures)