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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 34.Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands changes in social and political elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., reasons for the empire's retreat from the Balkans and Black Sea region; the lives of different members of Ottoman society such as the janissary, attendees of the Palace School, the role of women)
   2. Understands political characteristics of Egypt (e.g., the impact of the French invasion of Egypt in 1798, the reign and major accomplishments of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, why he was known as the "father of modern Egypt")
   3. Understands aspects of Russian expansion and settlement in the late 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., why Russia was successful in wars of expansion against the Ottoman empire; why and how Russia expanded across Asia into Alaska, and along the California coast; what archaeological evidence reveals about daily life in the Russian settlements at Sitka and Bogeda Bay)
   4. Understands the advance of British power in India up to 1850, its social and economic impact, and the efforts of Indians to resist European conquest and achieve cultural renewal
   5. Understands Chinese policies toward foreign trade and immigration to other countries (e.g., why China resisted political contact and trade with Europeans, and how the opium trade contributed to European penetration of Chinese markets; motivations behind the Chinese trading policy and China's desire to keep out foreigners; motivations behind Chinese immigration to the U.S. and Southeast Asia)
   6. Understands events and ideas that led to the modernization of Japan (e.g., the internal and external causes of the Meiji Restoration; the goals and policies of the Meiji state, and the impact of these upon Japan's modernization; what Commodore Matthew Perry accomplished in Japan in the 1850s and what his voyage meant for the Japanese)
   7. Understands the emergence of European trading companies and their impact on Indian culture (e.g., the origins of both the French and British East India companies, what their charters enabled them to do, and how the home countries viewed the role of these companies in India; the trading relationship between the East India companies and Indian rulers)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century (e.g., the defensive reform programs of Selim III and Mahmud II, and the challenges they faced in resolving the empire's political and economic crisis; sources of weakness of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century; the military training and equipment of the Janissary Corps; how and when territory of the Ottoman Empire changed during the first half of the 19th century; causes of the Crimean War, the main events, nations involved, and forms of warfare employed)
   2. Understands political conditions in Russia during the reign of Catherine the Great (e.g., the effects of the French Revolution, Napoleonic invasion, and world economy on Russian absolutism; the significance of imperial reforms and popular opposition movements in the late 19th century; the extent of Russian expansion into Eastern Europe and Central Asia; how Poland was partitioned in 1772, 1793, and 1795, and the location and significance of Russian ports on the White and Black Seas and the Baltic)
   3. Understands the impact of foreign trade and politics on Indian culture (e.g., major trade routes that linked China, India, and Europe, and the impact of this trade on Indian agriculture and industry; the decline of the Mughal empire and the rise of British political and military influence in India between 1750 and 1858; the competitive policies of the British and the French in India, and why the British East India Company was able to prevail; the goods imported to and exported from India)
   4. Understands the economic and social consequences of rapid population growth in China between the 17th and 19th centuries
   5. Understands causes of political and social turmoil in China in the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., causes of governmental breakdown, political conflict, and social disintegration in China in the late 18th and 19th centuries; the main events surrounding the Boxer Rebellion and the Opium War)
   6. Understands the origins of Japanese modernization and Japan's changing policies toward Western influences (e.g., the impact of Western ideas and the role of Confucianism and Shinto traditional values on Japan in the Meiji period, the role of the samurai in the events leading up to the Mejii Restoration)
   7. Understands the general political, social, and economic structure of Russia in the 1800s
   8. Understands significant cultural and political changes in India in the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., changing linguistic and religious diversity in India between the early 18th and late 19th centuries, the significant changes in political control and boundaries in India between 1798 and 1850)
   9. Understands Dutch involvement in various regions (e.g., changes in Dutch influence and control in South Asia between 1815 and 1850, how the Dutch ruled their colonies in the East Indies and what types of goods were traded by the Dutch in this region)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the social structure of the Ottoman Empire in the early and middle 19th century (e.g., the effects of population growth and European commercial penetration on Ottoman society and government; the roles of janissaries and Jewish and Christian merchants and landowners changed by the middle of the 19th century; the relative presence and the location of diverse religious and ethnic groups within the Ottoman Empire in 1800, and the prevailing Ottoman policy toward religion; the success and reception of the reforms of 1856 in the Hatt-I-Humayun issued by Abdul-Mejid)
   2. Understands events that shaped the social structure of Russia in the 19th century (e.g., relations between the Russian peasantry and land-owning aristocracy, and the persistence of serfdom; the czarist reform movements of the 1820s and how they appealed to different social sectors; Czar Nicholas I's positions on the creation of a constitution, freedom of the press, the Decembrist uprising, the Polish rebellion, and the process of Russification)
   3. Understands how Western culture influenced Asian societies (e.g., British policies in India compared to Dutch colonial practices in the East Indies; the lives of indigenous elites under these regimes; aspects of indigenous cultures that were embraced by Europeans; the major accomplishments of Ram Mohan Roy and his central ideas regarding Western influence in India)
   4. Understands causes and consequences of the Taiping Rebellion (e.g., how Christianity, rural class relations, and rural poverty contributed to the Taiping rebellion)
   5. Understands China's relations with Western countries (e.g., reasons for the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia and the Americas, the role of overseas Chinese in attempts to reform the Qing, the Chinese and British positions on opium sales and trade within China, prominent Chinese views on China's relations with the West and challenges presented to the West)
   6. Understands Japan’s political and social transformation in the 19th century (e.g., Japan’s transformation from a hereditary social system to a middle-class society; how Japan’s relations with China and the Western powers changed from the 1850s to the 1890s; the goals of the new imperial government, as outlined in the Charter Oath of 1868; reasons for Japan’s rapid industrialization and its response to Western commerce; aspects of Western society that appealed to 19th-century Japanese; who benefited and suffered in the initial decades of industrialization and nation building)
   7. Knows the individual motivations and relative military strength of the English, French, and Ottomans in the Crimean War, as well as the significance of the outcome of the war for each of these participants
   8. Understands events that shaped the expansion and development of Russia in the 19th century and early 20th century (e.g., the causes of the Crimean War and its consequences for Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France; the limits of Russian expansion eastward across Siberia and southward beyond the Caspian Sea; why Russia invaded the Ottoman territory in the early 1850s; how the Crimean War led to political and social reform for Russia; how Pan-Slavism affected Russian foreign policy in the late 19th century; what the Trans-Siberian and other railroad routes tell about Russian development and expansion from 1801 to 1914)
   9. Understands how the British presence and British policies shaped Indian society (e.g., the attitude of Muslim and upper-class Hindus toward the British presence in India; Britain's "modernizing" policies in India under the administration of Lord Dalhousie, and the social and political impact of the railroad on India; the central issues surrounding the supposition that the British "unified" India)
   10. Understands how the Treaties of Nanking (1842) and Shimonoseki (1895) illustrate the advent of late 19th-century Chinese imperialism
   11. Understands social conditions and change in Meiji Japan (e.g., the nature of living conditions for factory workers, aspects of education and social change, comparisons between the Meiji restoration and the French and American revolutions, the meaning and significance of various Meiji slogans)