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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 32.Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands the ideas and events that shaped the Revolution in France (e.g., the causes, character, and consequences of the American and French revolutions; the meaning of the revolutionary slogan in France, "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity," and the social ideals it embodied; the legacy of leading ideas of the revolution; how the wars of the revolutionary and Napoleonic periods changed Europe and Napoleon's effects on the aims and outcomes of the revolution; connections between political events in the Americas and France between 1770 and 1815)
   2. Understands the origins and development of Latin American independence movements (e.g., how the American, French, and Haitian revolutions and South American rebellions influenced the development of independence movements in Latin America; the political and ideological objectives, and the success of the independence movements between 1808 and 1830; how the colonial powers and independent countries of Latin America changed between 1790 and 1828; the role of geography in the outcome of the Latin American independence movements)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the diverse factors (e.g., the Seven Years War, Enlightenment-era thought, the American Revolution, escalating internal economic crisis) that affected social and political conditions in Old Regime France
   2. Understands events and ideas that influenced the course of the French Revolution (e.g., how the revolution developed from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic empire; the organization of the Estates-General and its merits and limitations; central ideas and origins of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen)
   3. Understands how the French Revolution changed social conditions in France (e.g., how the revolution changed political and religious institutions, social relations, education, family life, and the legal and political position of women; how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815 and their consequences for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans-culottes)
   4. Knows the consequences of Napoleon's invasions (e.g., the impact of Napoleon's invasion of Iberia and growing British power in the Atlantic basin on the independence movements in Latin America, the events surrounding Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, the flight of the Portuguese court to Brazil)
   5. Understands the political and ideological objectives of Latin American independence movements (e.g., knows who supported Father Miguel Hidalgo, his role in the Mexican Revolution of 1810; knows the role of Agust­n de Iturbide in the Creole-dominated revolt of 1821)
   6. Knows the leading figures and issues of the Congress of Vienna
   7. Understands elements of the Haitian revolution (e.g., the role of Touissant L'Overture, Haiti's social and economic conditions under French rule)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the impact of the Haitian Revolution (e.g., connections between the French and Haitian Revolutions, the impact of this event on race relations and slavery in the Americas and the French Empire)
   2. Understands comparisons between the Latin American revolutions and those in America, France, and Haiti (e.g., pre-independence social and political conditions, opposed regimes/policies, justifications of the revolutionaries, class representation, extent of revolution)
   3. Understands the status of women and other social classes during and following the Latin American independence movements (e.g., the political roles of Creole elites, the Catholic Church, and mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations; social and racial divisions in most of Latin America; how independence changed the status of women in Latin America and affected mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations; roles played by prominent women before the wars of independence in Latin America)
   4. Understands the political beliefs and writings that emerged during the French Revolution (e.g., characteristics and actions of radical, liberal, moderate, conservative, and reactionary thinking; the ideas in the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" and Olympe de Gouge's "Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen"; the implications of the "Code Napoleon" for Protestant and Catholic Clergy, property owners, workers, and women)
   5. Understands the ideas and issues during and after the Latin American independence movement (e.g., how the Brazilian independence movement differed from the rest, issues that concerned New Granada after independence, the provisions of the Monroe Doctrine and Latin American response to it)