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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 3.Understands the major characteristics of civilization and the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands influences on the development of various civilizations in the 4th and 3rd millennia BCE (e.g., how the natural environment of the Tigris-Euphrates, Nile, and Indus Valleys shaped the early development of civilization; different characteristics of urban development in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley)
   2. Understands the characteristics of writing forms in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley and how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life
   3. Understands how economic, political, and environmental factors influenced the civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., the impact of trade networks connecting various regions of Southwest Asia on Mesopotamian civilization; the importance of commercial, cultural, and political connections between Egypt and peoples of Nubia along the upper Nile; how geography and climate affected trade in the Nile Valley)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands environmental and cultural factors that shaped the development of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley (e.g., development of religious and ethical belief systems and how they legitimized political and social order; demands of the natural environment; how written records such as the Epic of Gilgamesh reflected and shaped the political, religious, and cultural life of Mesopotamia)
   2. Understands the role of economics in shaping the development of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., the economic and cultural significance of the trade routes between Egypt, India, and Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium, the importance of traded goods to each society)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands influences on the social and economic framework of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., the characteristics of government and military in Egypt and Mesopotamia and the ways in which central authorities commanded labor and taxes from peasant farmers; how architectural, artistic, technological, and scientific achievements of these civilizations affected the economics of daily life)
   2. Understands how written codes and stories reflect social conditions in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., how the code of Hammurabi illustrated the ethical values, social hierarchy and attitudes, and roles of women in Mesopotamia; how the biblical account of Genesis and the Enuma Elish from Babylon reflect contrasting beliefs)
   3. Understands features of trading networks in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., those geographical characteristics that encouraged Mesopotamia to engage in trade and those which made trade difficult, shifting political relationships between trading partners in the 1st and 2nd millennia BCE and sources of conflict between them, the breadth of the Indus trade network)