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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 29.Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands European influence in the Americas between the 16th and 18th centuries (e.g., European activity and control in the Americas in the form of territorial empires, trading-post empires, plantation colonies, and settler colonies; how the Netherlands, England, and France became naval, commercial, and political powers in the Atlantic basin; the locations of the British and French in the Americas, and their interest in trade there; the concept of mercantilism and its advantages and disadvantages for the colonies and the mother country)
   2. Understands features of the labor system and economy in the Americas (e.g., why sugar, tobacco, coffee, tea, and other crops grown in the colonies became so important in the world economy; different jobs performed by indigenous peoples in the Americas)
   3. Understands elements of the trans-Atlantic African slave trade (e.g., how slaves were transported to the Americas via the "middle passage"; how European firms and governments organized and financed the slave trade; conditions of slave life on plantations in the Caribbean, Brazil, and British North America; how slaves resisted servitude and preserved their African heritage)
   4. Understands elements of the slave trade in Africa (e.g., how the Atlantic slave trade affected population, economic systems, family life, polygynous marriage, and the use of male and female slave labor in West and Central Africa; what narratives reveal about the experience of Africans sold into slavery)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the consequences of European interaction with indigenous populations of the Americas (e.g., the moral, political, and cultural role of Catholic and Protestant Christianity in the European colonies in America; the Seven Years War and its consequences for Britain, France, Spain, and the indigenous peoples of the American colonial territories; the political relationships between American Indian nations and Holland, France, and England)
   2. Understands features of and participants in the slave trade (e.g., ways in which entrepreneurs and colonial governments exploited American Indian labor, and the use of African slave labor for commercial agriculture; the treatment of slaves in the Western Hemisphere as opposed to those in the Islamic lands, Christian Europe, and West Africa; the organization of long-distance trade in West and Central Africa and circumstances under which African governments, elites, and merchants participated in the sale of slaves to Europeans; treatment of slaves and forms of resistance used in the "middle passage")
   3. Understands factors that contributed to the development of various African societies (e.g., the importance of trade, slavery, and an expanding world economy to the development of such African states as Ashanti, Dahomey, Benin, Lunda, and Kongo; different forms of slave resistance and the founding of Maroon societies; how Ashanti concepts of monarchical power compare to those of Europeans)
   4. Knows the causes and consequences of encounters among Khoisan groups, Bantu-speaking peoples, and European settlers in South Africa in the 17th and 18th centuries
   5. Understands the differences in the demands and purposes of European colonies in different areas of the Western Hemisphere (e.g., how European colonies in Peru differed from those in the Great Lakes region, Barbados, or Massachusetts)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands economic and political features of various European colonies between the 16th and 18th centuries (e.g., the administrative system of the Spanish viceroyalties of Peru and Mexico, and the importance of Indian agriculture and silver production to Spanish colonial economy; the fundamental ideas of mercantilism and differences in how it was practiced by the Netherlands, France, and England; diversity in colonial governments, economies, the military, and social organization in European colonies)
   2. Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on race and gender in both the Iberian Empire and the British colonies in the Americas
   3. Understands the development of different African societies (e.g., the development, characteristics, and decline of the Songhay Empire in the 16th century, the regional and international circumstances under which large new states such as Lunda and Buganda emerged in East and Central Africa, the history of the African kingdom of Palmares in Brazil)
   4. Understands characteristics of the development of European colonies in the Americas (e.g., the appeal of the Americas for European colonists in the 16th and 17th centuries, why Europeans were able to establish large colonies on these continents, and why they did not assert this type of control in Africa and Asia)
   5. Understands possible reasons why Catholics were generally more successful than Protestants in converting non-Europeans between the 16th and 18th centuries
   6. Understands the development of different colonial labor systems and their impact on indigenous populations (e.g., the evolution of labor systems from the encomienda to the hacienda in North and South America from the 16th to the 17th centuries, the impact of the encomienda system on indigenous peoples and how it compares to slavery)
   7. Understands the "Black Legend," how it helped build opposition toward Spain, and how it illustrates Spain's unique dealings with aboriginal populations
   8. Understands how slavery was defined by different groups of people (e.g., key differences between the understanding of "slavery" by Africans and by European settlers in the Americas; how slavery was practiced in ancient, medieval, and early modern societies)
   9. Understands how the African slave trade influenced the lives of slaves in the Western Hemisphere (e.g., the institutions, beliefs, and practices of slaves working on plantations in the Western Hemisphere; the history of open slave rebellion and resistance in the Western Hemisphere; how the English and Spanish subdued slave rebellion in their colonies)