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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 24.Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands how the Aztec Empire arose in the 14th century (e.g., major aspects of Aztec government, society, religion and culture; the construction of Tenochtitl n, the "Foundation of Heaven")
   2. Understands social and political elements of Incan society (e.g., Incan methods for expansion and unification of their empire, daily life for different people in Incan society, the food plants that formed the basis of Incan as compared with Aztec agriculture)
   3. Understands what archaeological, artistic, and written sources can illustrate about pre-European life in the Americas
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands social and cultural features of Aztec society (e.g., the characteristics of Tenochtitl n that made it a unique city, gender roles in Aztec society and what these indicate about Aztec culture)
   2. Understands cultural and economic elements of North American and Mesoamerican civilizations (e.g., the major characteristics of Toltecs, Anasazi, Pueblo, and North American mound-building peoples; patterns of long-distance trade centered in Mesoamerica)
   3. Understands major political and social features of Incan society (e.g., the development of Incan social and political institutions, the chronology of Incan imperial expansion from 1230 to 1525 and the difficulties posed by its geographically an climatically diverse territories, the location and major features of Machu Picchu and what this site reveals about Incan civilization)
   4. Understands the similarities and differences between Incan and Aztec society (e.g., the essential differences between Aztec and Incan government, economy, religion, and social organization; how Incan and Aztec art and architecture reveal cultural achievements in their societies)
   5. Understands how the natural environment affected the organization of developing societies of the North American plains, Southwestern deserts, and the tropical forests of the Yucatan
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands political, social, and economic features of Aztec society (e.g., the locations and geographic limits of different phases of the Aztec Empire, the role and status of women in Aztec society and how this compares to the Incan and Mayan societies, the complex structure and features of the Aztec city of Tenochtitl n)
   2. Understands the significance of the mound centers located in the Mississippi valley, such as the mound center at Cahokia in Illinois
   3. Understands gender roles in Caribbean, Mesoamerican, and Andean societies and how these are reflected in images, myths, and individual qualities of their gods
   4. Knows the technology (e.g., engineering of roads, bridges, irrigation systems) and urbanism of the Incas (in Cuzco), the Aztecs (in Tenochtitl n), and of North American mound-builders