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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 20.Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practice and their importance for modern democratic thought and institutions
   2. Understands the systems of feudalism and manorialism (e.g., the principles of feudalism, manorialism, and serfdom, and their widespread use in parts of Europe in the 11th century; how population growth and agricultural expansion affected the legal, economic, and social position of peasant men and women; how the lives of peasants and serfs differed; how their lives were affected by the manors and castles)
   3. Understands the influence of Christianity in Medieval Europe (e.g., how successful the Christian states were in overthrowing Muslim powers in Central and Southern Iberia, the reasons for and consequences of the European Crusades against Syria and Palestine)
   4. Understands the lives of different groups of people in Medieval Europe (e.g., life in Jewish communities and what Jews added to the cultural and economic development of Europe; the influence of ideals of chivalry and courtly love on feudal society; how the status of women changed in medieval European life)
   5. Understands the significance of the university in Medieval Europe (e.g., how universities contributed to literacy, learning, and scientific advancement; why universities were founded in certain parts of Europe; the meaning of the word "university")
   6. Understands the significance of William the Conqueror in English society (e.g., why William invaded England; how he won control of England after the Battle of Hastings; what changes he made in governing England)
   7. Understands aspects of the architecture of Medieval Europe (e.g., different architectural styles from this period; how some elements may still be seen in local, modern architecture)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands political events that shaped the development of European governments (e.g., how European monarchies expanded their power at the expense of feudal lords, and the growth and limitations of representative institutions in these monarchies; how the political relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and secular states changed from the Early Middle Ages to the High Middle Ages; the conflict that led to the Battle of Hastings; the political changes William initiated after his victory, and the long-term cultural and social changes in England following the Norman conquest)
   2. Understands the importance of inheritance laws, arranged marriages, dowries, and family alliances for dynastic and aristocratic politics
   3. Understands the connection between agricultural technology and increased agricultural production and population growth in Europe between 1000 and 1300 CE
   4. Understands Christian efforts for the Reconquest of Spain from Muslim powers
   5. Understands the consequences of German expansion into Poland and the Baltic region
   6. Understands art, architecture, and education in medieval Christian and Spanish Muslim society (e.g., how major works of art, architecture, and literature reflect values and attitudes of medieval Christian society; poetry of Muslim Spain and Christian Europe; the origins, organization, and studies of Christian universities in Europe, and the influence of Muslim scholarship and universities; how Gothic cathedrals reflect central aspects of European society)
   7. Understands the roles and motivations of squires, saints, and soldiers in Christian Europe (e.g., aspects of training, rights, and responsibilities required of young men from noble families wishing to become squires; the role played by saints in the spread of Christianity; why Muslim and Christian soldiers may have joined the Crusades)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the role of feudalism and manorialism in European society (e.g., how different feudal institutions assisted monarchies in centralizing power; how manorialism could be considered an economic system, and the rights, roles, and obligations of manorial inhabitants; the relative success of European monarchies at establishing security and political legitimacy for feudalism)
   2. Understands the development of English government and its legal and political system (e.g., the Magna Carta and its tenets of the rule of the law and constitutional liberties; the structural differences, powers of, and participants in the representative governmental bodies of the English Parliament and French Estates-General)
   3. Understands the rise of the city-state in Italy and northern Europe (e.g., how city-states differed from centralizing monarchies; common features and activities that allowed city-states such as Genoa, Venice, and Bruges to become commercial, financial, and economic leaders of Europe and maintain their independence)
   4. Understands the effects of urbanization in Europe and the Mediterranean region (e.g., urban growth in the Mediterranean region and Northern Europe, and causes for expansion of manufacturing, interregional trade, and a money economy in Europe; the growth in economy, population, and urbanization in Europe in global context)
   5. Understands the spread of philosophy to Europe (e.g., the importance of the Islamic states of Iberia and Sicily as well as the Byzantine Empire in transmitting scientific and philosophical knowledge to Western and Central Europe; how classical works such as those of Aristotle and Plato became part of medieval philosophy in Western Europe, and the attitude of the Church toward these non-Christian philosophies)
   6. Understands comparisons of church-state relations and religious authority between Orthodox Christianity in the East and Latin Christianity in the West
   7. Understands the social elements of feudalism (e.g., the daily life of serfs, knights, and lords as feudalism developed late in the 1st millennium CE; how their lives and duties were interrelated, and what diverse sources illustrate about this life and this time)
   8. Understands how women influenced medieval politics (e.g., the roles and duties of women in 14th century political and home life; the opportunities available to upper class women and the obstacles they faced)
   9. Understands the influence of religious beliefs on various regions (e.g., the presence and motivation behind anti-Semitism in Western Europe during the Crusades; the correlations between commercial and naval domination by Latin Christian states over Muslim states in the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins and an increase in Christian political strength between the 11th and 13th centuries)
   10. Understands the rise of guilds as economic and social institutions and their efforts to promote economic growth, product quality, and workers' rights
   11. Understands how women's experiences in Europe were determined by social class, area, time, and stage of life and how these experiences are reflected in different types of literature (e.g., Treasure of City of Ladies by Catherine of Pisan and Art of Courtly Love)