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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 2.Understands the processes that contributed to the emergence of agricultural societies around the world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands the role of agriculture in early settled communities (e.g., how archaeological evidence explains the technology, social organization, and cultural life of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia; differences between wild and domestic plants and animals; how patterns of settlement were influenced by agricultural practices)
   2. Understands the development of early agricultural communities in different regions of the world (e.g., differences between hunter-gatherer, fishing, and agrarian communities; social, cultural, and economic characteristics of large agricultural settlements and their unique problems; the development of tropical agriculture in Southeast Asia)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands immediate and long-term impacts and influences of early agricultural communities (e.g., areas in Southwest Asia and the Nile valley where early farming communities first appeared, the effect of new tools and other objects on early farming settlements, whether fishing was considered a nomadic or agricultural way of life)
   2. Understands influences on the spread of agricultural communities (e.g., how local needs and conditions affected food plant domestication and world-wide patterns of settlement)
   3. Understands what archaeological evidence reveals about the social and cultural conditions of agricultural societies (e.g., the emergence of social class divisions, occupational specialization, differences in gender roles; long distance trade routes in Southwest Asia; the importance of obsidian to this trade)
   4. Understands inherent disadvantages and advantages of hunter-gatherer and early farming styles
   5. Understands the bases for the argument that agricultural life was an advance in human social development
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how agricultural communities maintained their produce and livestock (e.g., methods used by scholars to reconstruct the early history of domestication and agricultural settlement, how and why human groups domesticated wild grains and animals after the last Ice Age, the importance of controlling food supplies and storing them in the "Neolithic revolution")
   2. Understands what archaeological evidence has revealed about the cultural beliefs of early agricultural societies (e.g., the emergence of complete belief systems, including female deity worship)
   3. Understands social and cultural factors that define agricultural communities (e.g., archaeological evidence that distinguishes hunter-gatherer from agricultural sites, the relationship between agricultural production and cultural change)
   4. Understands what environmental and architectural evidence reveals about different types of large agricultural communities (e.g., the locations of different types of communities between 10,000 and 4,000 BCE; how patterns of layout, fortification, and standardization in large settlements helped transform human culture)
   5. Understands why some groups developed and accepted complete sedentary agriculture and others retained earlier subsistence methods