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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 19.Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands the impact of urbanization and commercial expansion on Chinese society between the 10th and 13th centuries (e.g., the effects of major technological and scientific inventions in the Song era on Chinese life, China's trade with Southeast Asia and the lands rimming the Indian Ocean, how this trade affected China internally)
   2. Understands different elements of Japanese feudal society (e.g., Japanese government during the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods, and whether it was feudalism; the rise of the warrior class in feudal Japan and the values it prescribed; how the economic and social status of women and peasants changed in feudal Japanese society; how art and aesthetic values were cherished in the warrior culture in Japan and what this art reveals about Japanese values; how the Japanese successfully defended themselves against Mongol invasions in the 13th century)
   3. Understands the cultural characteristics of Islamic society (e.g., the importance of scientific, literary, and artistic contributions made by the Islamic civilization between the 11th and 13th centuries; how these contributions helped communication between different Islamic peoples; the diverse, multiethnic character of the Islamic state)
   4. Understands features of trade routes in Asia, Europe, and Africa (e.g., how goods traveled from East Asia to Europe and the importance of the Indian Ocean to the societies of Asia, East Africa, and Europe; the usefulness of the camel in desert transportation and trade)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands how Confucianism changed between the 10th and 13th centuries (e.g., the impact of major dynastic changes in China on Confucianism; the synthesis of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism created by Zhu Xi to form neo-Confucianism)
   2. Understands the social and economic elements of Song China (e.g., how improved agricultural production and increased trade helped the growth of cities and the merchant class in Song China; the traditional social attitudes of China toward merchants and commercial activity; significant achievements and developments of the Song Dynasty, the rigors and class restrictions of the civil service examination in Song China)
   3. Understands government and politics of the Kamakura period (e.g., similarities and differences between feudalism in Japan and medieval Europe; significant political events in the history of the Kamakura period)
   4. Understands influences on the development of Buddhist sects in Japan (e.g., how unique forms of Buddhism [sects] developed under the influence of social, political, and religious forces; the impact of the warrior culture on the lives of common people and the development of Buddhist sects)
   5. Understands the development of Southeast Asian states (e.g., how Champa, Angkor, and Dai Vet accumulated power and wealth; the influence of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Hinduism on these states)
   6. Understands the expansion of Islam and daily life in Islamic regions (e.g., how Turkic migration from Turkestan into Southwest Asia and India helped Islam expand and forced the retreat of Byzantium and Greek Christian civilization, what life in Egypt was like for Jewish and Christian communities, what student life was like in Islamic regions)
   7. Understands elements of trade in different regions (e.g., the importance of Cairo and other major cities as centers of international trade and culture; how the spread of Islam was connected to trade in Central Asia, East Africa, West Africa, the coasts of India, and Southeast Asia; the importance to individual societies of goods traded between Asia, Africa, and Europe; the consequences placed on maritime trade by the seasonal monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean; features and functions of caravansaries and khans in Central Asian and Middle Eastern cities; which ships were most successfully used for trade in the Indian Ocean and why)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the struggle for Vietnamese independence from China and the subsequent reconstruction of Vietnamese society and government
   2. Understands religious, social, and political aspects of the Song Dynasty (e.g., the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values; Chinese advancements in alchemy, astronomy, and medicine; the values of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as reflected in Song art; changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding; the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors; the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change)
   3. Understands how different religious movements influenced various cultures between the 11th and 13th centuries (e.g., the origins and growth of the North African Islamic reform movements; the impact of Christian campaigns of the Crusades on the societies and Muslim populations of Cairo, Damascus, and Sicily)
   4. Understands the significance of Sufism (e.g., the basic beliefs of Sufism and Sufism's role in the spread of Islam, how society and Sufi ideas are described and exemplified in Islamic literature, the roles and social position of Sufi orders in rural and urban areas)
   5. Understands how interregional trade and communication affected Eurasia and Africa (e.g., how international trade encouraged the rise of city-states along the East African coast, and helped end the isolation of African societies below the Saharan desert; the impact of economic and commercial expansion of Song China on communication and trade in Eurasia)
   6. Understands significant religious and economic aspects of Chinese society between the 10th and 13th centuries (e.g., the impact of economic growth on Chinese society and how it affected the gentry class; how Zhu Xi's basic ideas of Neo-Confucianism affected Chinese society, government, and education)
   7. Understands different social classes and gender roles in Japanese society (e.g., the influence of Buddhist sects on the samurai class; the role of social class, area, time, and age in determining women's experiences)
   8. Understands the significance of art and philosophy in Japanese and Cambodian society (e.g., philosophical values and traditions presented in Noh drama, how diverse Japanese art forms from the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods reflect Shinto and Buddhist philosophy, Indian and Southeast Asian influences on the architecture of the 12th-century temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, what art and literature reveal about the lives of people in Japan in the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods)
   9. Understands how the wars with the Mongols influenced Japanese society (e.g., the defeat of the Mongols, the samurai revolt against the Kamakura shogunate and the negative economic impact of these conflicts)
   10. Understands cultural and political aspects of the Turkic Empires (e.g., the way of life of Turkic peoples such as the Seljuks, the origins and growth of the militaristic Seljuk and Ghazanavid Empires)