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List of Benchmarks for World History

Standard 17.Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands the significant features of Mayan civilization (e.g., locations of Mayan city-states, road systems, and sea routes in Mesoamerica and the influence of the environment on these developments; the role and status of elite women and men in Mayan society as indicated by their portrayal in Mayan monumental architecture; the importance of religion in Mayan society; the structure and purpose of Mayan pyramids; ceremonial games among the Mayans)
   2. Understands different farming methods of Teotihuacan and Moche civilization (e.g., agricultural methods, water utilization, and herding methods used by the Teotihuacan and Moche peoples, and how the natural environment of the Andes helped to influence these methods)
   3. Understands methods used to study Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Moche civilizations (e.g., locations of these communities and their major archaeological remains, what archaeological evidence such as clay pottery and figures reveal about Moche civilization, what remains of planned cities reveal about the structure of Zapotec and Teotihuacan civilization)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the economic and agricultural elements of Mayan society (e.g., the extent, importance, and composition of Mayan trade; the adaptability and importance of Mayan agricultural techniques and their connection to the rise of Mayan city-states)
   2. Understands social features of Mayan culture (e.g., differing views concerning the causes for the decline of Mayan civilization, ways that Mayan myths reflect social values and daily survival skills)
   3. Understands what art and architecture reveal about early Mesoamerica and Andean societies (e.g., what art and architecture reflects about the character of the Zapotec state in the valley of Oaxaca; what art and artifacts indicate about the interests, occupations, and religious concerns of the Moche people; what murals infer about Mayan and Teotihuacan societies)
   4. Understands social features of Andean societies (e.g., different agriculture practices in the Moche/Andean region; kinship groups, regulated family and community life in Andean societies)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands ways in which the Mayan world view and cultural life were portrayed (e.g., the Mayan cosmic world view and the role of Mayan deities as revealed in art and architecture, the descriptions of social and religious life inferred in Mayan [Bonampak] glyphs and murals, what the Popul Vuh tells about the Mayan world view and creation myth and its reliability as an account of the Mayan world view)
   2. Understands Mayan achievements in astronomy, mathematics, and the development of a calendar (e.g., the place of archaeological evidence such as the "Long Count" calendar in the interpretation of Mayan history, how achievements in astronomy affected Mayan society, the value of mathematical innovations and the calendar to farmers)
   3. Understands relationships between Mesoamerican and Andean societies (e.g., the growth of urban society centered on Teotihuacan and the importance of this city as a transmitter of Mesoamerican cultural traditions to later societies; comparisons between Mayan, Moche, and Teotihuacan religions and rituals; the basic structure, economy, and ritual of Andean societies such as the Moche, Tihuanaco, and Chimu; the basic construction and variations of Mesoamerican calendars; possible methods of contact between Mesoamerican and Andean societies and the cultural diffusion seen in areas such as agriculture, societal structure, and artisan crafts)
   4. Understands urban planning in Mayan culture (e.g., patterns and significance of architectural planning and city planning in Mayan culture and the religious factors that affected these layouts)