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World History

Standard 16.Understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Knows the routes by which migrants settled the Pacific Islands and New Zealand and the navigational techniques they used on long distance voyages
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands influences on state-building in West Africa (e.g., how the natural environments of West Africa defined agricultural production, and the importance of the Niger River in promoting agriculture, commerce, and state-building; the growth of the Ghana empire; how Islam, labor specialization, regional commerce and the trans-Saharan camel trade promoted urbanization in West Africa; the governing system of the royal court in Ghana, and how the effectiveness of imperial efforts was aided by a belief in the king's divinity)
   2. Understands the establishment of agricultural societies on the Pacific Islands and New Zealand (e.g., the plants and animals that early migrants carried with them; how these "introductions" affected the existing island flora and fauna; possible links between the cultures of Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and New Zealand)
   3. Understands the role of oral history in understanding West African history (e.g., the griot "keeper of tales" and other sources used to understand history)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the origins and development of societies in Oceania (e.g., theories using linguistic, biological, and cultural evidence to explain migration patterns to the Pacific Islands and New Zealand; how complex social structures, religions, and states developed in Oceania)
   2. Understands economic, social, and religious influences on Ghana society (e.g., what archaeological evidence indicates about the development of Jenne-jeno and Kumbi-Saleh into important early commercial cities; the agriculture, trade, standard of living, expansionary tendencies and role of religious ideas in Ghana)
   3. Understands settlement patterns in different regions of Africa (e.g., causes and consequences of the settling of East, Central, and Southern Africa by Bantu-speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE)