Standards Database Logo
Home | Browse | Search | Purpose | History | Process | Acknowledgment| Reference



List of Benchmarks for United States History

Standard 5.Understands how the values and institutions of European economic life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands the factors that shaped the economic system in the colonies and the Americas (e.g., labor systems, natural resources, relations with other countries and the home country)
   2. Understands economic life in the New England, Chesapeake, and southern colonies (e.g., environmental and human factors; the work people did; the crops that plantation, yeoman, and family farmers grew; the New England merchant’s trading triangle)  A 
   3. Understands elements of African slavery during the colonial period in North America (e.g., relocation of enslaved Africans to the Caribbean and North America, the slave trade and "the middle passage")  A 
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands mercantilism and how it influenced patterns of economic activity (e.g., the advantages and disadvantages of mercantilism for the mother country and its colonies; the value of the regions that produced sugar, rice, tobacco, timber, coffee, grains, fish and minerals to the mother country)
   2. Understands the environmental and legislative impacts on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies (e.g., the connection between the Navigation Acts and mercantilism; the influence of climate, land fertility, water resources, access to markets)
   3. Understands patterns of indentured servitude and influences on slavery (e.g. why indentured servitude was prevalent in the mid-Atlantic, Chesapeake, and southern colonies; the Virginia and Massachusetts’ laws that institutionalized slavery)
   4. Understands the social, cultural, and political events that shaped African slavery in colonial America (e.g., how slavery in African societies differed from chattel racial slavery in English colonies, influence of African heritage on efforts to develop a new African American culture, incidents of resistance to slavery, the introduction of crops by African slaves)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the characteristics of mercantilism in colonial America (e.g., the Atlantic economy and triangular trade, overseas trade and the Navigation Acts, economic development in French, English, and Spanish colonies)
   2. Understands factors that influenced economic life in the North American and West Indian colonies (e.g., the development of a consumer society and the imitation of English culture)
   3. Understands elements of slavery in the colonies in the 17th century (e.g., the emergence of chattel slavery in Virginia and Maryland, why free labor and chattel slavery did not provide an alternative for labor in the Chesapeake colonies before 1675)
   4. Understands the contributions of African slaves to economic development in the Americas (e.g., contributions of rice cultivation and cattle raising in South Carolina) and the transmission of African cultural heritage (e.g., through religious practices, dances, and work songs)

 A  = Assessment items available