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List of Benchmarks for United States History

Standard 29.Understands the struggle for racial and gender equality and for the extension of civil liberties
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands the development of the civil rights movement (e.g., the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education and its significance in advancing civil rights; the resistance to civil rights in the South between 1954 and 1965; how the "freedom ride," "civil disobedience," and "non-violent resistance" were important to the civil rights movement; Martin Luther King Jr.’s "I Have a Dream" speech in the context of major events)  A 
   2. Understands the involvement of diverse groups in the civil rights movement (e.g., the agendas, strategies, and effectiveness of African, Asian, Latino, and Native Americans, as well as the disabled, in advancing the movement for civil and equal rights; regional issues important to diverse groups and their efforts to attain equality and civil rights after World War II )
   3. Understands the development of the post-World War II women’s movement (e.g., the major issues affecting women and the conflicts these issues engendered, the emergence of the National Organization for Women, post-World War II attitudes toward women)
   4. Understands the Warren Court’s interpretation of freedom of religion (e.g., the importance of the separation of church and state and freedom of religion in contemporary American society, local and regional issues regarding religious freedom)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands individual and institutional influences on the civil rights movement (e.g., the origins of the postwar civil rights movement; the role of the NAACP in the legal assault on the leadership and ideologies of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X; the effects of the constitutional steps taken in the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of government; the shift from de jure to de facto segregation; important milestones in the civil rights movement between 1954 and 1965; Eisenhower’s reasons for dispatching federal troops to Little Rock in 1957)  A 
   2. Understands factors that shaped the women's rights movement after World War II (e.g., the factors that contributed to the development of modern feminism; the ideas, agendas, and strategies of feminist and counter-feminist organizations; conflicts originating from within and outside of the women's movement)
   3. Understands conflicts raised by the Warren Court decisions (e.g., why the Engel v. Vitale decision provoked widespread opposition)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how diverse groups united during the civil rights movement (e.g., the escalation from civil disobedience to more radical protest, issues that led to the development of the Asian Civil Rights Movement and the Native American Civil Rights Movement, the issues and goals of the farm labor movement and La Raza Unida)
   2. Understands conflicting perspectives on different issues addressed by the women’s rights movement (e.g., the Equal Rights Amendment, Title VII, and Roe v. Wade)
   3. Understands how various Warren Court decisions influenced society (e.g., the Warren Court’s expansion of due process rights for the accused and criticisms of this extension; Warren Court’s reasoning in establishing the "one man, one vote" principle; the effectiveness of the judiciary in promoting civil liberties and equal opportunities)
   4. Understands significant influences on the civil rights movement (e.g., the social and constitutional issues involved in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and Brown v. Board of Education (1954) court cases; the connection between legislative acts, Supreme Court decisions, and the civil rights movement; the role of women in the civil rights movement and in shaping the struggle for civil rights)

 A  = Assessment items available